Improve Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Tai Chi

Improve Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Tai Chi

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

Tai chi does not mean oriental wisdom or something exotic. It is the wisdom of your own senses, your own mind and body together as one process.” – Chungliang Al Huang

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Type 2 Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is largely preventable. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world. A leading cause of this is a sedentary lifestyle. Current treatments for Type 2 Diabetes focus on diet, exercise, and weight control. Recently, mindfulness practices have been shown to be helpful in managing diabetesTai Chi is mindfulness practice and a gentle exercise that has been found to improve the symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes. The research is accumulating. So, it is reasonable to examine what has been learned

 

In today’s Research News article “Effect of tai chi on glycaemic control, lipid metabolism and body composition in adults with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis and systematic review.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8814847/ ) Guo and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the published research studies of the effectiveness of Tai Chi practice in the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. They identified 23 published randomized clinical trials.

 

They report that the published research found that in comparison to usual clinical care, patients who were given Tai Chi practice had significantly lower levels of body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin levels, fasting blood glucose, blood glucose levels after meals, HbA1c, total cholesterol, and low density lipoproteins (LDL), and higher levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL). Tai Chi produced similar results in comparison to aerobic exercise with body mass index, fasting blood glucose levels, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Tai Chi produced superior results to aerobic exercise in reducing HbA1c and increasing high density lipoproteins (HDL).

 

Hence, the research published to date indicates that Tai Chi practice is superior to usual clinical care in improving obesity, glycemic control, and plasma fats and is superior to  aerobic exercise in improving glycemic control and blood fats. This suggests that Tai Chi practice should be recommended for patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

 

Tai Chi Chuan, the great ultimate, strengthens the weak, raises the sick, invigorates the debilitated, and encourages the timid.” – Cheng Man-ch’ing

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Guo S, Xu Y, Qin J, Chen Y, You Y, Tao J, Liu Z, Huang J. Effect of tai chi on glycaemic control, lipid metabolism and body composition in adults with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis and systematic review. J Rehabil Med. 2021 Mar 22;53(3):jrm00165. doi: 10.2340/16501977-2799. PMID: 33594445; PMCID: PMC8814847.

 

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of tai chi on metabolic control and body composition indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing literature.

Methods

Electronic resource databases were searched to collect eligible studies. Two reviewers selected studies and independently evaluated methodological quality.

Results

Twenty-three studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that tai chi had significant effects in improving metabolic indices, such as fasting blood glucose (mean difference (MD) = –1.04; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) –1.42 to 0.66; p < 0.01) and total cholesterol (MD = –0.50; 95% CI –0.86 to –0.13; p < 0.01) compared with conventional clinical therapy. Most indices did not support the use of tai chi over aerobic exercise, except for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (MD = –0.24; 95% CI –0.49 to 0.00; p < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (MD = 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12; p < 0.01).

Conclusion

Tai chi had better effects on metabolic control and body composition indicators than clinical conventional therapy, but only on HbA1c and HDL were superior than that of aerobic exercise. The best time-window for tai chi intervention may differ with different metabolic indices.

LAY ABSTRACT

Exercise therapy is a possible alternative and effective strategy for blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes, since drug therapy is associated with side-effects, long-term loss of efficacy, and poor adherence to lifelong treatment. A review of evidence was performed regarding the effects of tai chi on glycaemic control and other indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The results indicate that tai chi not only improves metabolic control, e.g. fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol, but also improves body composition indicators, e.g. body mass index. However, benefits of tai chi over aerobic exercise were seen in only a few outcome measures. The type and methodology of studies varied widely, with discrepancies in intensity, frequency, and duration of tai chi; therefore, further high-quality research is needed in order to draw specific and accurate conclusions.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8814847/

 

Improve the Health of the Elderly with Depression with Tai Chi

Improve the Health of the Elderly with Depression with Tai Chi

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“adding a mind-body exercise like tai chi that is widely available in the community can improve the outcomes of treating depression in older adults.” – UCLA Health

 

The aging process involves a systematic progressive decline in every system in the body, the cardiovascular system and respiratory system included. The elderly frequently also have problems with attention, thinking, and memory abilities, known as mild cognitive impairment. An encouraging new development is that mindfulness practices such as meditation training and mindful movement practices can significantly reduce these declines.

 

Tai Chi has been practiced for thousands of years with benefits for health and longevityTai Chi training is designed to enhance function and regulate the activities of the body through regulated breathing, mindful concentration, and gentle movements. Tai Chi practice has been found to be effective for an array of physical and psychological issues. Tai Chi has been shown to help the elderly improve attentionbalance, reducing fallsarthritiscognitive function, memory, and reduce age related deterioration of the brain. The elderly are often depressed. So, it makes sense to study the effectiveness of Tai Chi practice on the health of  the elderly with depression.

 

In today’s Research News article “Comparison of the effects of Tai Chi and general aerobic exercise on weight, blood pressure and glycemic control among older persons with depressive symptoms: a randomized trial.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9077840/ ) Wang and colleagues recruited older adults (> 60 years of age) who had depressive symptoms and randomly assigned the to receive 3 times per week for 60 minutes for 12 weeks of either Tai Chi practice or 20 movement low impact aerobic exercise. They were measured before and after training and 3 month later for body size, blood pressure and blood HbA1c levels.

 

They found that in comparison to baseline and the aerobic exercise group, the group that practiced Tai Chi lost a significantly greater amount of weight and Body Mass Index (BMI), had significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and had significantly lower HbA1c levels. Hence, in older adults with depressive symptoms Tai Chi practice is more effective than aerobic exercise in reducing body weight, blood pressure, and improving long-term glucose control.

 

So, Tai Chi improves the physical well-being of older adults.

 

tai chi is an exercise form you can practice all your life.  Good for the mind and the body, it’s a physical activity that will help keep you feeling healthy for years to come. “ – NHSNetworks

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Wang, Y., Luo, B., Wu, X., Li, X., & Liao, S. (2022). Comparison of the effects of Tai Chi and general aerobic exercise on weight, blood pressure and glycemic control among older persons with depressive symptoms: a randomized trial. BMC geriatrics, 22(1), 401. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-022-03084-6

 

Abstract

Background

Blood pressure and glycemic control are associated with the management of depressive symptoms in patients with depression. Previous studies have demonstrated that both Tai Chi and aerobic exercise have positive effects on blood pressure and glycemic control. Few studies have compared the physiological effects of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise in older adults with depressive symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Tai Chi and aerobic exercise on weight, body mass index, blood pressure and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level in older persons with mild to moderate-severe depressive symptoms.

Methods

A randomized controlled trial was performed. The older persons (age ≥ 60 years old) with depressive symptoms were recruited. Then, participants were randomly allocated to the Tai Chi group and the aerobic exercise group received a 12-week 24-movement Yang’s Tai Chi intervention and aerobic exercise, respectively. Data collection occurred at baseline and after completion of the interventions (week 12).

Results

A total of 238 participants with mild to moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were included in the final analysis, including 120 in the Tai Chi group and 118 in the aerobic exercise group. The difference in weight and body mass index in the Tai Chi group was 2.0 kg (Z = -4.930, P < 0.001) and 0.77 kg/m2 (Z = -5.046, P < 0.001) higher than that in the aerobic exercise group, respectively. After the 12-week intervention, the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure in the Tai Chi group were 5.50 mmHg (Z = -2.282, P = 0.022) and 8.0 mmHg (Z = -3.360, P = 0.001) lower than that in the aerobic exercise group, respectively. The difference in HbA1c level in the Tai Chi group was 0.50% higher than that in the aerobic exercise group (Z = -4.446, P < 0.001).

Conclusion

This study showed that Tai Chi exercise was more effective in improving blood pressure and HbA1c level than general aerobic exercise. It suggested that Tai Chi might be an effective approach for the management of blood pressure and long-term glucose control in older persons with depressive symptoms.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9077840/

Improve the Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes with Yoga Therapy

Iyengar Yoga Exercises For Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 - YouTube

Improve the Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes with Yoga Therapy

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Yoga can do more than just relax your body in mind — especially if you’re living with diabetes. Certain poses may help lower blood pressure and blood sugar levels while also improving circulation, leading many experts to recommend yoga for diabetes management.” – Emily Cronkleton

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States and nearly 600 million people worldwide have diabetes, and the numbers are growing. Type-2 Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world. A leading cause of this is a sedentary lifestyle. Unlike Type I Diabetes, Type II does not require insulin injections. Instead, the treatment and prevention of Type 2 Diabetes focuses on diet, exercise, and weight control. Recently, mindfulness practices have been shown to be helpful in managing diabetes. A mindfulness practice that combines mindfulness with exercise is yoga and it has been shown to be helpful in the treatment of Type II Diabetes.

 

In today’s Research News article “Impact of an Integrated Yoga Therapy Protocol on Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8798588/ ) Gowri and colleagues recruited adult patients with Type 2 diabetes and randomly assigned them to either receive twice weekly for 120 days sessions of yoga therapy or treatment as usual. Both groups received dietary advice. They were measured before treatment and 120 days later for body size and levels of insulin and lipids in the blood.

 

They found in comparison to baseline and the control group that the yoga therapy group had significantly lower body mass index (BMI), post-prandial and fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, insulin resistance, LDL cholesterol, and very-low density lipoproteins and higher levels of HDL cholesterol.

 

These are encouraging results that yoga therapy is a safe and effective treatment to improve the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Future research should compare yoga therapy to other forms of exercise.

 

Yoga therapy works predominantly by its ability to decrease the stress response, which in turn controls blood glucose levels. In addition, postures and other yogic techniques may benefit the function of abdominal organs like the pancreas via mechanical and energetic effects.” – Robyn Tiger

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Mangala Gowri, M., Rajendran, J., Srinivasan, A. R., Bhavanani, A. B., & Meena, R. (2022). Impact of an Integrated Yoga Therapy Protocol on Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Rambam Maimonides medical journal, 13(1), e0005. https://doi.org/10.5041/RMMJ.10462

 

Abstract

Objective

Diabetes mellitus (DM), characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, is attributed to relative insulin deficiency or resistance, or both. Studies have shown that yoga can modulate parameters of insulin resistance. The present study explored the possible beneficial effects of integrated yoga therapy with reference to glycemic control and insulin resistance (IR) in individuals with diabetes maintained on standard oral medical care with yoga therapy, compared to those on standard oral medical care alone.

Methods

In this study, the subjects on yoga intervention comprised 35 type 2 diabetics, and an equal number of volunteers constituted the control group. Subjects ranged in age from 30 to 70 years, with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test more than 7%, and were maintained on diabetic diet and oral hypoglycemic agents. Blood samples were drawn prior to and after 120 days of integrated yoga therapy intervention. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), post-prandial blood glucose (PPBG), HbA1c, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed in both the intervention and control groups.

Results

The intervention group revealed significant improvements in body mass index (BMI) (0.7 kg/m2 median decrease; P=0.001), FBG (20 mg/dL median decrease; P<0.001), PPBG (33 mg/dL median decrease; P<0.001), HbA1c (0.4% median decrease; P<0.001), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (1.2 median decrease; P<0.001), cholesterol (13 mg/dL median decrease, P=0.006), triacylglycerol (22 mg/dL median decrease; P=0.027), low-density lipoprotein (6 mg/dL median decrease; P=0.004), and very-low-density lipoprotein levels (4 mg/dL median decrease; P=0.032). Increases in high-density lipoprotein after 120 days were not significant (6 mg/dL median increase; P=0.15). However, when compared to changes observed in patients in the control group, all these improvements proved to be significant.

Conclusion

Administration of integrated yoga therapy to individuals with diabetes leads to a significant improvement in glycemic control, insulin resistance, and key biochemical parameters.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8798588/

Improve Diabetes in Older and Elderly Patients with Tai Chi

Improve Diabetes in Older and Elderly Patients with Tai Chi

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Tai Chi exercises can improve blood glucose levels and improve the control of type 2 diabetes and immune system response.” – Medical News Today

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Type 2 Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is largely preventable. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world. A leading cause of this is a sedentary lifestyle. Current treatments for Type 2 Diabetes focus on diet, exercise, and weight control. Recently, mindfulness practices have been shown to be helpful in managing diabetesTai Chi is mindfulness practice and a gentle exercise that has been found to improve the symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes. The research is accumulating. So, it is reasonable to examine what has been learned.

 

In today’s Research News article “A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Tai Chi on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Middle-Aged and Elderly Diabetic Patients: Evidence from Randomized Controlled Trials.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007338/ ) Liu and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the published randomized controlled studies of the effectiveness of Tai Chi practice in the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes in older and elderly patients. They identified 14 published studies.

 

They report that the published studies found that Tai Chi practice produced significant reductions in fasting blood glucose levels, glycated hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoproteins, and significantly increased the levels of high density lipoproteins. They report that these improvements occurred predominantly in studies where Tai Chi was practiced for at least 50 minutes per day, for at least 12 weeks.

 

The findings of this meta-analysis suggests that Tai Chi practice is a safe and effective treatment for older and elderly patients with Type 2 Diabetes improving blood glucose and lipid profiles. It is important to note that Tai Chi practice is gentle and completely safe, can be used with the elderly and sickly, is inexpensive to administer, can be performed in groups or alone, at home or in a facility or even public park, and can be quickly learned. In addition, it can also be practiced in social groups without professional supervision. This can make it fun, improving the likelihood of long-term engagement in the practice. Hence, Tai Chi practice is an almost ideal treatment for Type 2 Diabetes

 

So, improve diabetes in older and elderly patients with Tai Chi.

 

Stress stands in the way of controlling diabetes. Since tai chi encourages mental relaxation and reduces stress, it follows that Tai Chi can improve the control of diabetes.” – Paul Lam

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Liu, Y. N., Wang, L., Fan, X., Liu, S., Wu, Q., & Qian, Y. L. (2021). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Tai Chi on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Middle-Aged and Elderly Diabetic Patients: Evidence from Randomized Controlled Trials. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2021, 6699935. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6699935

 

Abstract

This research review aimed to evaluate the effect of practicing Tai Chi on glucose and lipid metabolism in middle-aged and elderly diabetic patients. Furthermore, it aimed to provide a theoretical basis for the practice of Tai Chi as a way to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in middle-aged and elderly diabetic patients. Therefore, we searched for randomized controlled trials on the practice of Tai Chi in middle-aged and elderly diabetic patients in Chinese- and English-language electronic databases, such as Web of Science, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, CNKI, Wanfang Database, and Weipu. We collected articles published no later than August 1, 2020. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the standards of the Cochrane Collaboration System Evaluation Manual (version 5.1.0). Finally, 14 articles were included, showing an average Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale score of 6.57. The articles were meta-analyzed using Stata 14.0 software, showing that practicing Tai Chi improved middle-aged and elderly diabetic patients’ fasting blood glucose (WMD = −0.60, 95% CI [−1.08, −0.12], p=0.015), glycosylated hemoglobin (WMD = −0.87, 95% CI [−1.60, −0.14], p=0.019), total cholesterol (WMD = −0.48, 95% CI [−0.83, −0.14], p=0.006), triglycerides (WMD = −0.21, 95% CI [−0.37, −0.04], p=0.014), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level significantly (WMD = −0.32, 95% CI [−0.63,−0.00], p=0.050). Conversely, patients’ high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (WMD = 0.09, 95% CI [−0.01, 0.17], p=0.136) showed no obvious improvement. In conclusion, practicing Tai Chi in sessions lasting longer than 50 minutes (at least three times per week, for at least 12 weeks) can effectively improve glucose and lipid metabolism in middle-aged and elderly diabetic patients. However, several other factors affect glucose and lipid metabolism; therefore, further high-quality research is needed.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007338/

 

Movement-Based Therapies are Affective for Rehabilitation from Disease

Movement-Based Therapies are Affective for Rehabilitation from Disease

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

Tai chi is often described as “meditation in motion,” but it might well be called “medication in motion.” There is growing evidence that this mind-body practice, which originated in China as a martial art, has value in treating or preventing many health problems.” – Havard Health

 

Mindful movement practices such as yoga and Tai Chi and Qigong have been used for centuries to improve the physical and mental health and well-being of practitioners. But only recently has the effects of these practices come under scientific scrutiny. This research has been accumulating. So, it makes sense to pause and examine what has been learned about the effectiveness of these practice for rehabilitation from disease.

 

In today’s Research News article “Movement-Based Therapies in Rehabilitation.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7476461/ ) Phuphanich and colleagues review and summarize the published research studies of the effects of mindful movement practices on rehabilitation from disease.

 

They report that published research has found that yoga practice reduces fatigue, sleep disturbances, depression, and anxiety and improves the immune system in cancer patients. Yoga has been found to be an effective treatment for mental health issues such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yoga has been found to reduce pain levels, fear avoidance, stress, and sleep disturbance and increases self-efficacy and quality of life in chronic pain patients. Yoga has been found to improve the symptoms of traumatic brain injury, stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson disease, dementia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and neuropathies. In addition, yoga has been found to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, respiratory rate, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c, and insulin resistance in cardiopulmonary diseases.

 

They report that the published research has found that Tai Chi and Qigong practices reduce falls in the elderly. Tai Chi and Qigong has been found to reduce pain levels and increase quality of life in chronic pain patients. In addition, there is evidence that Tai Chi and Qigong practices improves depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, sleep disturbance, schizophrenia, rheumatoid arthritis, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and immune disorders.

 

These are remarkable findings. The range of disorders that are positively affected by yoga, Tai Chi, and Qigong practices is breathtaking. These practices are also safe and can be widely implemented at relatively low cost and can be performed alone or in groups and at home or in a therapeutic setting. This suggests that these practices should be routinely implemented for rehabilitation from disease.

 

So,  movement-based therapies are affective for rehabilitation from disease.

 

Being mindful through any physical activity can not only improve performance in the activity such as yoga, tennis, swimming, etc, but it can also increase flexibility, confidence in movement and generate a sense of body and mind connection that has the potential for improving your overall sense of well-being.“- Anupama Kommu

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Phuphanich, M. E., Droessler, J., Altman, L., & Eapen, B. C. (2020). Movement-Based Therapies in Rehabilitation. Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North America, 31(4), 577–591. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmr.2020.07.002

 

Abstract

Movement therapy refers to a broad range of Eastern and Western mindful movement-based practices used to treat the mind, body, and spirit concurrently. Forms of movement practice are universal across human culture and exist in ancient history. Research demonstrates forms of movement therapy, such as dance, existed in the common ancestor shared by humans and chimpanzees, approximately 6 million years ago. Movement-based therapies innately promote health and wellness by encouraging proactive participation in one’s own health, creating community support and accountability, and so building a foundation for successful, permanent, positive change.

Key Points – Movement-based therapies

  • Decrease fear avoidance and empower individuals to take a proactive role in their own health and wellness.
  • Can benefit patients of any ability; practices are customizable to the individual’s needs and health.
  • Are safe, cost-effective, and potent adjunct treatments used to supplement (not replace) standard care.
  • Deliver patient-centered, integrative care that accounts for the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.
  • Have diverse, evidence-based benefits, including reduction in pain, stress, and debility, and improvements in range of motion, strength, balance, coordination, cardiovascular health, physical fitness, mood, and cognition.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7476461/

 

Type 2 Diabetes is not Improved with Tai Chi and Qigong Practices

Type 2 Diabetes is not Improved with Tai Chi and Qigong Practices

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Diet and exercise are the cornerstone of diabetes management. People with diabetes who exercise regularly have better control over their blood glucose levels and fewer complications such as heart disease and stroke. Many people, however, are unable to keep up with their regular exercise because they either don’t enjoy it, or have a problem finding time to exercise. Tai chi offers a major advantage: It’s enjoyable, and to many, it’s almost addictive.“ – Paul Lam

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States and nearly 600 million people worldwide have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Type II Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable.

One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world. A leading cause of this is a sedentary life style. Current treatments for Type 2 Diabetes focus on diet, exercise, and weight control. Recently, mindfulness practices have been shown to be helpful in managing diabetes. Mindful movement practices such as Tai Chi and Qigong  are mindfulness practices that are also gentle exercises that appear to improve type 2 diabetes.

 

In today’s Research News article “Effects of fitness qigong and tai chi on middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746158/ ) Li and colleagues recruited sedentary adults over 40 years of age who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and who did not practice Tai Chi or Qigong. They were randomly assigned to receive 60 minutes of practice, 5 times per week for 12 weeks of either fitness qigong, Tai Chi, or stretching exercise. They were measured before and after training for body size and blood samples were taken and assayed for fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), and C-peptide levels.

 

Compared to baseline and the stretching group after training there were no significant changes in fasting plasma glucose but the fitness qigong and Tai Chi groups maintained significantly higher levels of HbA1C and the Tai Chi group had significantly lower levels of c-peptide. They also found that the longer the patients had type 2 diabetes the greater the reduction in fasting plasma glucose after fitness qigong practice. In contrast, the greater the waist to hip ratio the greater the increase in HbA1C in the Tai Chi group.

 

These are interesting but disappointing results that suggest that neither Tai Chi nor Qigong practice improve blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, Tai Chi appears to increase HbA1C levels particularly in overweight patients suggesting poorer glucose regulation. In contrast patients who have had type 2 diabetes for a long period of time appear to benefit from Qigong practice.

 

These are complex results that do not fit with prior findings by other researchers that Tai Chi and Qigong practices improve type 2 diabetes. It may be due to relatively small sample sizes. One possibility is the comparison condition employed, active stretching. Many prior research studies compared Tai Chi and Qigong practice to treatment as usual groups that do not control for participant expectancy, experimenter bias, and attentional effects. It is possible that in comparison to a stronger active control condition these practices do not show benefit. This would suggest that any active practice might produce benefits for sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes.

 

Tai Chi can prompt a declination in blood glucose levels, perhaps by improving blood glucose metabolism, prompting a decrease in the inflammatory response. . . the exercise may boost levels of fitness along with a feeling of well being — this in turn may boost the health of the immune system.” – Anna Sophia McKenney

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Li, X., Si, H., Chen, Y., Li, S., Yin, N., & Wang, Z. (2020). Effects of fitness qigong and tai chi on middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PloS one, 15(12), e0243989. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0243989

 

Abstract

Currently, qigong and tai chi exercises are the two most common preventive as well as therapeutic interventions for chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the quantitative evaluation of these interventions is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of qigong and tai chi intervention in middle-aged and older adults with T2DM. The study included 103 eligible participants, who were randomized to participate for 12 weeks, in one of the following intervention groups for the treatment of T2DM: fitness qigong, tai chi, and control group. Three biochemical measures, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), and C-peptide (C-P) levels, assessed at baseline and 12 weeks, served as the primary outcome measures. During the training process, 16 of the 103 participants dropped out. After the 12-week intervention, there were significant influences on HbA1C (F2,83 = 4.88, p = 0.010) and C-P levels (F2,83 = 3.64, p = 0.031). Moreover, significant reduction in C-P levels was observed after 12-week tai chi practice (p = 0.004). Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the duration of T2DM and the relative changes in FPG levels after qigong intervention, and the relative changes in HbA1C levels were positively correlated with waist-to-height ratio after tai chi practice. Our study suggests that targeted qigong exercise might have a better interventional effect on patients with a longer duration of T2DM, while tai chi might be risky for people with central obesity.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746158/

 

Improve Glucose and Lipid Metabolism with Tai Chi

Improve Glucose and Lipid Metabolism with Tai Chi

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Tai Chi exercises can improve blood glucose levels and improve the control of type 2 diabetes and immune system response.” – Anna McKenney

 

Diet and exercise are the typical recommendation to improve glucose and lipid metabolism for the treatment and prevention of a number of metabolic disorders. Alternatives to classical exercise programs are Tai and Qigong practices. They have been practiced for thousands of years with benefits for health and longevity. Tai Chi training is designed to enhance function and regulate the activities of the body through regulated breathing, mindful concentration, and gentle movements.

 

Recently the effects of Tai Chi practice been scrutinized with empirical research. It has been found to be effective for an array of physical and psychological issues. It appears to strengthen the immune systemreduce inflammationincrease the number of cancer killing cells in the bloodstream and improve cardiovascular function. In addition, they appear to be effective in improving blood glucose and lipid metabolism. Because Tai Chi is not strenuous, involving slow gentle movements, and is safe, having no appreciable side effects, it is appropriate for all ages including the elderly and for individuals with illnesses that limit their activities or range of motion. But most studies of Tai Chi benefits have employed lengthy practices. The acute, immediate, effects of a session of Tai Chi have not been well investigated.

 

In today’s Research News article “Effect of a Single Session of Tai Chi Chuan Practice on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism and Related Hormones.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460509/ ) Lu and colleagues recruited healthy adults over 50 years of age who were Tai Chi practitioners and a group of non-practitioners who were equivalent in age, gender, and body size. The Tai Chi group performed one 40-minute Tai Chi practice while the control group rested for 40 minutes. They obtained blood samples from both groups before and after their sessions and measured them for total cholesterol, blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity, and endothelin-1 (ET-1, a vasoconstrictor).

 

They found that at baseline, before practice, the Tai Chi group in comparison to the control group at rest had significantly lower levels of total cholesterol, insulin, insulin resistance, while insulin sensitivity was significantly higher. In comparison to the control group the Tai Chi group had a significantly greater percentage increases from baseline in blood glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance and a significantly larger percentage decreases in total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, insulin sensitivity, and endothelin-1 (ET-1).

 

These are interesting results that must be tempered with the understanding that the control condition was not active. So, the changes seen after Tai Chi practice may have been due to exercise effects rather than performing Tai Chi itself. Indeed, the results on the immediate acute effects of Tai Chi practice on glucose and lipid metabolism are complicated and difficult to interpret. This may be due to the lack of an active control, comparison, condition, revealing the effects of activity vs. rest rather than effects specific to Tai Chi.

 

But the baseline results are not contaminated and they suggest that the practice of Tai Chi produces a general improvement in glucose and fat metabolism that is present even without immediate practice. This suggests that Tai Chi practice improves the overall physiological health of the practitioners. This would lead to lower likelihood of diabetes or cardiovascular disease and improvements in the diseases if present. Indeed Tai Chi practice has been found to be beneficial, improving symptoms, for people with diabetes and also cardiovascular disease.

 

So, improve glucose and lipid metabolism with Tai Chi.

 

Diet and exercise are the cornerstone of diabetes management. People with diabetes who exercise regularly have better control over their blood glucose levels and fewer complications such as heart disease and stroke. Many people, however, are unable to keep up with their regular exercise because they either don’t enjoy it, or have a problem finding time to exercise. Tai chi offers a major advantage: It’s enjoyable, and to many, it’s almost addictive.” – Paul Lam

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Lu, W. A., Chen, Y. S., Wang, C. H., & Kuo, C. D. (2020). Effect of a Single Session of Tai Chi Chuan Practice on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism and Related Hormones. Life (Basel, Switzerland), 10(8), 145. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10080145

 

Abstract

Background: To examine the effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practice on glucose and lipid metabolism and related hormones in TCC practitioners. Methods: Twenty-one TCC practitioners and nineteen healthy controls were included in this study. Classical Yang’s TCC was practiced by the TCC practitioners. The percentage changes in serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), serum glucose (SG), serum insulin, serum insulin level, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), log(HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and serum endothelin-1 (ET-1) before and 30 min after resting or TCC practice were compared between healthy controls and TCC practitioners. Results: Before TCC or resting, the serum insulin level, HOMA-IR, and log(HOMA-IR) of the TCC practitioners were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects, whereas the QUICKI of the TCC practitioners was significantly higher than that of healthy subjects. Thirty min after TCC practice, the %TC, %HDL-C, %QUICKI, and %ET-1 were all significantly decreased, whereas the %SG, %serum insulin, and %HOMA-IR were significantly increased in the TCC group as compared to the control group 30 min after resting. Conclusions: The serum glucose, insulin level and insulin resistance were enhanced, whereas the cholesterol, HDL-C and ET-1 levels were reduced 30 min after TCC practice. The mechanism underlying these effects of TCC 30 min after TCC is not clear yet.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460509/

 

Improve Physiological Adaptation to High Altitude with Yoga and Meditation

Improve Physiological Adaptation to High Altitude with Yoga and Meditation

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

Pranayama techniques allow for maximizing your lung capacity, which becomes critical at high altitudes.” – D.. M. Kumar

 

Breathing is essential for life and generally occurs automatically. It’s easy to take for granted as it’s been there our entire lives. Nevertheless, we become more aware of it when it varies with circumstances, such as when we exercise, in emotional states, especially fear and anxiety, and at high altitude. Breathing exercises are common in yoga practices and have been found to have a number of beneficial effects. High altitude taxes the physiology and particularly the respiratory system. Since yoga practice can improve respiratory function, it would be expected that yoga practice would improve the physiological adaptations needed to function at high altitude.

 

In today’s Research News article “Effect of mindfulness meditation protocol in subjects with various psychometric characteristics at high altitude.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218243/) Bhanushali and colleagues recruited adults with no prior Kriya Yoga experience and provided them with an intensive 4-day 15 hours per day practice of Kriya Yoga at high altitude (11,500 ft.). The practice consisted of a combination of meditation and yoga. They were measured before and after training for body size, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, cholesterol, triglycerides, psychometric constitution (prakriti), attention, memory, verbal fluency, executive functioning, and information processing speed, anxiety, mental well-being, and happiness.

 

They found that in comparison to baseline, after the Kriya Yoga practice there were significant increases in oxygen saturation, blood glucose, mental well-being and happiness and significant decreases in anxiety, blood triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein. Hence, after training there were improvements in physical and psychological well-being.

 

These results must be interpreted cautiously as there wasn’t a control comparison condition. So, the results could be due to acclimatization over the 4 days at high altitude and not to the Kriya Yoga practice. Also, without a control condition, participant expectancy effects (placebo), experimenter bias, attentional effects etc. may be responsible for the results. In addition, there was no comparison to other exercises. So, the effects may be due to exercise and not specifically to Kriya Yoga.

 

Taking this into consideration, the results demonstrate that intensive yoga practice can be conducted at high altitude and shows potential for improving physical and psychological acclimatization to high altitude.

 

So, improve physiological adaptation to high altitude with yoga and meditation.

 

BREATHE — the universal mantra of yoga. This can be a bit harder than normal at thousands feet above sea level. There’s 20 percent less oxygen (or more!) in the air at these elevations. You may experience headache, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, shortness of breath, and sleep disturbance (and sleep is oh-so-important). If you’re feeling like you’re suffering from a bad hangover or the flu, chances are your body is struggling to adapt to the change in altitude.”.- Vicki Kahn

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Bhanushali, D., Tyagi, R., Limaye Rishi Nityapragya, N., & Anand, A. (2020). Effect of mindfulness meditation protocol in subjects with various psychometric characteristics at high altitude. Brain and behavior, 10(5), e01604. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1604

 

Abstract

Introduction

Incidence of high altitude‐related sickness is increasing due to more number of people visiting the areas of high altitude which may result in life‐threatening conditions including acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), and High‐altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH). We hypothesized that an advanced yoga regimen may be beneficial in dealing with the physiology of acclimatization.

Methods

Anthropometric, Biochemical, and Psychological assessments were carried out in 48 participants before and after the advance meditation program (AMP) in the experimental group. Individuals with an age range of 20–65 years with no comorbidities were included in the study. Participants were exposed to AMP for 4 days. All assessments were carried out at the baseline and after the course. Prakriti was constituted for all participants using a standard questionnaire. The study was carried out after obtaining the written informed consent as per the guidelines outlined by the Institute Ethics Committee.

Results

Po2 and glucose levels were found significantly reduced along with changes in the Happiness index, anxiety, and mental well‐being. However, participants with lowered Po2, after 4 days of mindfulness intervention, showed a positive outcome measured by the established scales of anxiety, happiness, and information processing. Psychometric or Prakriti wise analysis revealed that subject with “Pitta” constitution exposed to high altitude and advance meditation showed changes in more parameters than “Vatta” or “Kapha” Constitution.

Conclusions

Advance meditation in the high altitude zone confers biochemical and neuro‐cognitive benefits. Molecular studies may require to understand the role of hypoxic condition in improving the disease state.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218243/

 

Improve Cardiovascular and Metabolic Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes with Yoga

Improve Cardiovascular and Metabolic Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes with Yoga

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

Yoga practices such as cleansing processes, asanas, pranayama, mudras, bandha, meditation, mindfulness, and relaxation are known to reduce blood glucose levels and to help in the management of comorbid disease conditions associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in significant positive clinical outcomes.” – Arkiath Veettil Raveendran

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States and nearly 600 million people worldwide have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Type II Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world. A leading cause of this is a sedentary life style. Unlike Type I Diabetes, Type II does not require insulin injections. Instead, the treatment and prevention of Type 2 Diabetes focuses on diet, exercise, and weight control. Recently, mindfulness practices have been shown to be helpful in managing diabetes. A mindfulness practice that combines mindfulness with exercise is yoga and it has been shown to be helpful in the treatment of Type II Diabetes.

 

In today’s Research News article “Yoga-based lifestyle treatment and composite treatment goals in Type 2 Diabetes in a rural South Indian setup- a retrospective study.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156497/), Arumugam and colleagues recruited adults with Type 2 Diabetes in rural India and randomly assigned them to either standard care or to 6 months of 1 hour daily supervised yoga practice “comprised of loosening practices, asanas, pranayama, relaxation techniques, and meditation.” They were measured before and after treatment for blood levels of A1c, LDL and HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and body mass index (BMI).

 

They found that for the most part the control group had deterioration of most measures of their cardiovascular and metabolic health while the yoga group had significant improvements in all measures, including blood fats and glucose, blood pressure, and body weight, except total triglycerides. Hence, the patients with Type 2 Diabetes markedly reduced their risk factors for cardiovascular disease while the control group increased their risk.

 

These are very encouraging results that yoga practice can improve the health of patients with Type 2 Diabetes in rural India and lower their risk of developing serious cardiovascular disease. It would be important in future research to include another condition of perhaps aerobic exercise to evaluate if yoga practice confers extra benefits beyond its exercise effects. Regardless, the results suggest that yoga practice improves the physical well-being of patients with Type 2 Diabetes in rural settings.

 

So, improve cardiovascular and metabolic symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes with yoga.

 

Yoga is considered to be a promising, cost-effective option in the treatment and prevention of diabetes, with data from several studies suggesting that yoga and other mind-body therapies can reduce stress-related hyperglycemia and have a positive effect on blood glucose control.” – Diabetes UK

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Arumugam, G., Nagarathna, R., Majumdar, V., Singh, M., Srinivasalu, R., Sanjival, R., Ram, V. S., & Nagendra, H. R. (2020). Yoga-based lifestyle treatment and composite treatment goals in Type 2 Diabetes in a rural South Indian setup- a retrospective study. Scientific reports, 10(1), 6402. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63133-1

 

Abstract

This multicentre retrospective study examined the effects of adjunct yoga-treatment in achieving composite cardiovascular goals for type 2 diabetes (T2D), set forth by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) in rural Indian settings. Records were extracted for 146 T2D patients, aged ≥20–70 years, and treated under the “Apollo Total Health Programme” for rural diabetes management, for the period April 2016 to November 2016. The study cohort comprised of two treatment groups (n = 73 each); non-yoga group (standard of care) and yoga group (adjunct yoga-treatment). Propensity score matching was applied between the study groups to define the cohort. Composite cardiovascular scores were based on the combination of individual ADA goals; A1c < 7%, blood pressure (BP) < 140/90 mmHg, stringent BP (<130/80 mmHg) and lipid, LDL-C < 100 mg/dl [risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease]. Logistic regression was used to compare between the two treatment groups. Compared to standard of care, adjunct yoga-treatment was found to significantly facilitate the attainment of ADA composite score by 8-fold; A1c, ~2-fold; LDL-C, ~2-fold; BP < 140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg by ~8-and ~6-fold respectively. This study provides the first evidence for significant efficacy of adjunct yoga-treatment for the attainment of favourable treatment goals for T2D in rural Indian settings.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156497/

 

Improve Type 2 Diabetes with Mindful Movement

Improve Type 2 Diabetes with Mindful Movement

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Living with diabetes is a major life stressor, from the physical and psychological aspects of managing blood sugar and medications to the eating challenges. A great deal of what we go through in life is beyond our control. The diabetes is always going to be there, but until you connect with what you’re feeling and experiencing, you’re not going to be able to make conscious choices about living with its many challenges.” – Ivy Marcus

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Type 2 Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is largely preventable. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world. A leading cause of this is a sedentary life style. Current treatments for Type 2 Diabetes focus on diet, exercise, and weight control. Recently, mindfulness practices have been shown to be helpful in managing diabetes. Mindful movement practices such as Tai Chi and Qigong  and yoga are mindfulness practices that are also gentle exercises. There is accumulating research on the effectiveness of these mindful movement practices for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. So, it makes sense to examine what has been learned.

 

In today’s Research News article “Meditative Movements for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7016481/), Xia and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the published research literature on the effectiveness of mindful movement practices for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. They found 21 controlled studies; 6 employing Tai Chi practice, 3 Qigong practice, and 12 yoga.

 

They report that the published research found that mindful movement practices produced significant reductions in fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and postprandial blood glucose levels. These results suggest that mindful movement practices improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. There were no significant differences found between different mindful movement practices.

 

They also report that the published research found that mindful movement practices produced significant reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and significant increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These results suggest that mindful movement practices improve blood lipid levels in type 2 diabetes. There were no significant differences found between different mindful movement practices.

 

The improvements observed produced by Tai Chi, Qigong  and yoga practices are very important for the treatment and control of type 2 diabetes. Glycemic control is a key to successful treatment and lipid control is important for reducing cardiovascular problems that can occur. So, these exercises significantly improve the metabolic state of patients with type 2 diabetes. The fact that the different practices were equivalent in effectiveness suggests that the patient can select the practice type that they enjoy most and best suits their lifestyle.

 

So, improve Type 2 Diabetes with mindful movement.

 

Practicing mindfulness exercises and daily physical activity has been shown repeatedly to help manage stress and depression, and promote mental balance and happiness. Mindfulness exercises are therefore a crucial component in both preventing and managing type 2 diabetes, and reducing the risk of complications for type 1 and type 2 diabetics.” – Defeat Diabetes Foundation

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Xia, T., Yang, Y., Li, W., Tang, Z., Huang, Q., Li, Z., & Guo, Y. (2020). Meditative Movements for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2020, 5745013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5745013

 

Abstract

Objective

Physical activity plays a specific role in the fundamental aspect of diabetes care. It is necessary to develop exercise programs for these patients. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize current evidence regarding the effectiveness of meditative movement in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

The following databases were searched: PubMed, CENTRAL, Web of Science, Ovid LWW, and EMBASE. Two independent investigators searched and screened the studies by finding duplications, excluding irrelevant titles and abstracts, and then selecting eligible studies by reviewing full texts. 21 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were performed on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and postprandial blood glucose (PPBG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and body mass index (BMI).

Results

Meta-analyses showed that meditative movements significantly improved FBG, HbA1c, PPBG, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. No improvement was found in BMI.

Conclusions

The results demonstrated a favorable effect or tendency of meditative movements to improve blood glucose and blood lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The special effects of meditative movements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients need further research.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7016481/