Improve the Long-Term Mental Health of Breast Cancer Survivors with Mindfulness

Improve the Long-Term Mental Health of Breast Cancer Survivors with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

mindfulness-based meditation can help ease the stress, anxiety, fear, and depression that often come along with a breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.” – Breast Cancer.org

 

Receiving a diagnosis of cancer has a huge impact on most people. Feelings of depression, anxiety, and fear are very common and are normal responses to this life-changing and potentially life-ending experience. But cancer diagnosis is not necessarily a death sentence. Over half of the people diagnosed with cancer are still alive 10 years later and this number is rapidly increasing. But, surviving cancer carries with it a number of problems. Anxiety, depression, fatigue and insomnia are common symptoms in the aftermath of surviving breast cancer. These symptoms markedly reduce the quality of life of the patients.

 

Mindfulness training has been shown to help with cancer recovery and help to alleviate many of the residual physical and psychological symptoms, including fatiguestress,  sleep disturbance, and anxiety and depression. Although there is considerable research on the topic, there is very little on the long-term effectiveness of mindfulness training on Hispanic breast cancer survivors.

 

In today’s Research News article “Long-Term Effect of a Nonrandomized Psychosocial Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Hispanic/Latina Breast Cancer Survivors.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6971966/), Elimimian and colleagues recruited patients who had received a breast cancer diagnosis within the last 5 years. They provided them with a once a week for 2 hours, 8 week program of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The program included meditation, body scan, yoga practices, and discussion along with daily home practice. They were measured before the program and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years for anxiety, depression, mental, emotional, and physical health, and physical and mental quality of life.

 

They found that after MBSR treatment and over the 2-year follow-up period that there were significant reductions in anxiety and depression, and significant improvements in mental quality of life. It should be noted that there wasn’t a control comparison condition present so the results must be interpreted with caution. But prior better controlled research studies have demonstrated that MBSR treatment is effective in improving symptoms in cancer survivors. So, it is likely that the present results were due to the effectiveness of the MBSR program and not to a confounding factor. The contribution of the present study is that it demonstrates that these mental health improvements also occur in Hispanic women.

 

So, improve the long-term mental health of breast cancer survivors with mindfulness.

 

“Results show promise for mindfulness-based interventions to treat common psychological problems such as anxiety, stress, and depression in cancer survivors and to improve overall quality of life.” – Linda E. Carlson

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Elimimian, E., Elson, L., Bilani, N., Farrag, S. E., Dwivedi, A. K., Pasillas, R., & Nahleh, Z. A. (2020). Long-Term Effect of a Nonrandomized Psychosocial Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Hispanic/Latina Breast Cancer Survivors. Integrative cancer therapies, 19, 1534735419890682. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735419890682

 

Abstract

Background: There is a paucity of research on the long-term impact of stress-reduction in Hispanic/Latina breast cancer (BC) survivors, a growing minority. In this article, we assess the long-term efficacy of an 8-week training program in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on quality of life (QoL) in Hispanic BC survivors. Methods: Hispanic BC survivors, within the first 5 years of diagnosis, stages I to III BC, were recruited. Participants were enrolled in bilingual, 8-week intensive group training in MBSR and were asked to practice a- home, daily. They were also provided with audio recordings and a book on mindfulness practices. Patient-reported outcomes for QoL and distress were evaluated at baseline, and every 3 months, for 24 months. Results: Thirty-three self-identified Hispanic women with BC completed the MBSR program and were followed at 24 months. Statistically significant reduction was noted for the Generalized Anxiety Disorder measure (mean change −2.39, P=0.04); and Patient Health Questionnaire (mean change −2.27, P=0.04), at 24 months, compared with baseline. Improvement was noted in the Short-Form 36 Health-related QoL Mental Component Summary with an increase of 4.07 (95% confidence interval = 0.48-7.66, P=0.03). However, there was no significant change in the Physical Component Summary. Conclusions: Hispanic BC survivors who participated in an 8-week MBSR–based survivorship program reported persistent benefits with reduced anxiety, depression, and improved mental health QoL over 24 months of follow-up. Stress reduction programs are beneficial and can be implemented as part of a comprehensive survivorship care in BC patients.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6971966/

 

Improve the Psychological Well-Being of Patients Living with HIV/AIDS with Mindfulness

Improve the Psychological Well-Being of Patients Living with HIV/AIDS with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

Given the stress-reduction benefits of mindfulness meditation training, these findings indicate there can be health protective effects not just in people with HIV but in folks who suffer from daily stress,” – – David Creswell

 

More than 35 million people worldwide and 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV infection. These include a significant number of children and adolescents. In 1996, the advent of the protease inhibitor and the so-called cocktail changed the prognosis for HIV. Since this development a 20-year-old infected with HIV can now expect to live on average to age 69. Hence, living with HIV is a long-term reality for a very large group of people.

 

People living with HIV infection experience a wide array of physical and psychological symptoms which decrease their perceived quality of life. The symptoms include chronic pain, muscle aches, anxiety, depression, weakness, fear/worries, difficulty with concentration, concerns regarding the need to interact with a complex healthcare system, stigma, and the challenge to come to terms with a new identity as someone living with HIV. Mindfulness training has been shown to improve psychological well-being, lower depression and strengthen the immune system of patients with HIV infection. Yoga practice has also been found to be effective in treating HIV.

 

The research is accumulating. So, it makes sense to step back and review what has been learned about the effectiveness of mindfulness training for the treatment of the symptoms of living with HIV/AIDS. In today’s Research News article “Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Adults Living with HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6344266/), Scott-Sheldon and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) for the treatment of the symptoms experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS.

 

They identified 16 published research studies containing a total of 1059 participants. Of these studies 11 employed Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) while 5 studies employed Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). All studies compared pre- to post-treatment measures while 9 of these studies also had a control comparison group.

 

They report that the published research found that in comparison to baseline after treatment with Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) there were significant improvements in quality of life and positive emotions and significant reductions in anxiety and depression. The reductions in depression were significantly greater for those participants who received Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). No significant effects were reported for improvements in immune system function (CD4 counts).

 

This analysis of the available research suggests that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) are a safe and effective treatment to improve the psychological health of patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. The fact that Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) was more effective for depression was not surprising as MBCT was specifically developed to treat depression. It has been well established the Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) are effective in reducing anxiety and depression and improving positive emotions and quality of life in a wide variety of patients. The present analysis simply extends types of patients for which Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs)are beneficial to patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS.

 

So, improve the psychological well-being of patients living with HIV/AIDS with mindfulness.

 

mindfulness-based therapies . . . had a long-term effect on stress and both a short- and long-term effect on depression in people living with an HIV infection.” – Xu Tian

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Scott-Sheldon, L., Balletto, B. L., Donahue, M. L., Feulner, M. M., Cruess, D. G., Salmoirago-Blotcher, E., … Carey, M. P. (2019). Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Adults Living with HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. AIDS and behavior, 23(1), 60–75. doi:10.1007/s10461-018-2236-9

 

Abstract

This meta-analysis examined the effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on stress, psychological symptoms, and biomarkers of disease among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Comprehensive searches identified 16 studies that met the inclusion criteria (N = 1,059; M age = 42 years; 20% women). Participants had been living with HIV for an average of 8 years (range = <1 to 20 years); 65% were currently on antiretroviral therapy. Between-group analyses indicated that depressive symptoms were reduced among participants receiving the MBIs compared to controls (d+ = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.71). Within-group analyses showed reductions in psychological symptoms (i.e., less anxiety, fewer depressive symptoms) and improved quality of life over time among MBI participants (d+s = 0.40–0.85). No significant changes were observed for immunological outcomes (i.e., CD4 counts) between- or within- groups. MBIs may be a promising approach for reducing psychological symptoms and improving quality of life among PLWHA. Studies using stronger designs (i.e., randomized controlled trials) with larger sample sizes and longer follow-ups are needed to clarify the potential benefits of MBIs for PLWHA.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6344266/

 

Improve Quality of Life and Reduce Falls in Dementia Patients with Tai Chi

Improve Quality of Life and Reduce Falls in Dementia Patients with Tai Chi

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“The number of people living with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia-related conditions is exploding in the United States. But while scientists struggle to find a new medical treatment, tai chi, the ancient Chinese martial art, has emerged as a potentially potent way to help stem the tide.” – David-Dorian Ross

 

Dementia is a progressive loss of mental function produced by degenerative diseases of the brain. These are progressive disorders with no cures. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia. It is estimated that 5 million Americans have Alzheimer’s disease. It involves an irreversible progressive loss of mental function associated with brain degeneration. The early stages are typified by memory loss but as the disease progresses patients can lose the ability to carry on a conversation or carry on normal life functions, and eventually leads to death.

 

Mindfulness training has been found to help protect aging individuals from physical and cognitive declines. Tai Chi has been practiced for thousands of years with benefits for health and longevityTai Chi training is designed to enhance function and regulate the activities of the body through regulated breathing, mindful concentration, and gentle movements. Tai Chi practice has been found to be effective for an array of physical and psychological issues. Tai Chi has been shown to help the elderly improve attentionbalance, reducing fallsarthritiscognitive functionmemory, and reduce age related deterioration of the brain. So, it makes sense to investigate the effects of Tai Chi practice in patients with dementia.

 

In today’s Research News article “Randomised Controlled Trial Of The Effect Of Tai Chi On Postural Balance Of People With Dementia.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6875562/),Nyman and colleagues recruited community dwelling elderly (aged 78 to 97 years) adults with dementia and randomly assigned them to either usual care or usual care plus 20 weeks of once a week for 90 minutes Tai Chi practice and home practice. They were measured before and after training for dynamic balance, functional balance, falls, fall efficacy, fear of falls, quality of life, and cognitive function.

 

They found that in comparison to baseline and the usual care group, the Tai Chi group had a significantly greater quality of life and significantly fewer falls (44% fewer) during the 6-month follow-up period. There were no serious adverse events due to Tai Chi practice recorded.

 

Since Tai Chi is practiced in groups, the fact that it produced an increase in quality of life may have been due to the enhanced social contacts occurring in the course of practice. This can have quite an impact as community dwelling elderly, and particularly those with dementia, are often isolated from social contacts. The reduced falls has been previous documented in the elderly. The present study, though, documents this in dementia patients. This is very important as falls in the elderly are particularly dangerous and can be major contributors to mortality.

 

Tai Chi is not strenuous, involving slow gentle movements, and is safe, having no appreciable side effects, it is appropriate for all ages including the elderly and for individuals with illnesses that limit their activities or range of motion. It can also be practiced without professional supervision and in groups making it inexpensive to deliver and fun to engage in. This makes Tai Chi practice an excellent means to improve the quality of life and prevent falls in elderly dementia patients.

 

So, improve quality of life and reduce falls in dementia patients with Tai Chi.

 

Researchers have shown that regular practice of Tai Chi increases brain volume, augments memory and thinking skills, and may combat dementia.” – Explore

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Samuel R Nyman, Wendy Ingram, Jeanette Sanders, Peter W Thomas, Sarah Thomas, Michael Vassallo, James Raftery, Iram Bibi, Yolanda Barrado-Martín. Randomised Controlled Trial Of The Effect Of Tai Chi On Postural Balance Of People With Dementia. Clin Interv Aging. 2019; 14: 2017–2029. Published online 2019 Nov 19. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S228931

 

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the effect of Tai Chi exercise on postural balance among people with dementia (PWD) and the feasibility of a definitive trial on falls prevention.

Patients and methods

Dyads, comprising community-dwelling PWD and their informal carer (N=85), were randomised to usual care (n=43) or usual care plus weekly Tai Chi classes and home practice for 20 weeks (n=42). The primary outcome was the timed up and go test. All outcomes for PWD and their carers were assessed six months post-baseline, except for falls, which were collected prospectively over the six-month follow-up period.

Results

For PWD, there was no significant difference at follow-up on the timed up and go test (mean difference [MD] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.17, 3.81). At follow-up, PWD in the Tai Chi group had significantly higher quality of life (MD = 0.051, 95% CI = 0.002, 0.100, standardised effect size [ES] = 0.51) and a significantly lower rate of falls (rate ratio = 0.35, 95% CI =0.15, 0.81), which was no longer significant when an outlier was removed. Carers in the Tai Chi group at follow-up were significantly worse on the timed up and go test (MD = 1.83, 95% CI = 0.12, 3.53, ES = 0.61). The remaining secondary outcomes were not significant. No serious adverse events were related to participation in Tai Chi.

Conclusion

With refinement, this Tai Chi intervention has potential to reduce the incidence of falls and improve quality of life among community-dwelling PWD

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6875562/

 

Improve the Psychological Health of Patients with Early Psychosis with Mindfulness

Improve the Psychological Health of Patients with Early Psychosis with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

for people with psychosis without severe social anxiety, learning mindfulness strategies in a group format is greatly appreciated and offers clear benefits—in terms of participants being more active, less depressed and less anxious.” – Tania Lecomte

 

Psychoses are mental health problems that cause people to perceive or interpret things differently from those around them. This might involve hallucinations; seeing and, in some cases, feeling, smelling or tasting things that aren’t objectively there, or delusions; unshakable beliefs that, when examined rationally, are obviously untrue. The combination of hallucinations and delusional thinking can often severely disrupt perception, thinking, emotion, and behavior, making it difficult if not impossible to function in society without treatment. Psychoses appear to be highly heritable and involves changes in the brain. The symptoms of psychoses usually do not appear until late adolescence or early adulthood. There are, however, usually early signs of the onset of psychoses which present as cognitive impairments.

 

Mindfulness training has been shown to be beneficial for patients with psychosis. Implementing interventions early in the disease progression may maximize the benefits. It would be even better to intervene before full-blown symptoms emerge. Research in this area is accumulating. Hence, it makes sense to review and summarize the studies to assess the state of the understanding of the effectiveness of early intervention with mindfulness training in patients at risk for or in early stages of psychosis.

 

In today’s Research News article “Clinical Effects of Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Patients With First Episode Psychosis and in Individuals With Ultra-High Risk for Transition to Psychosis: A Review.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6837071/ ), Vignaud and colleagues reviewed and summarized the 9 published research studies on the effectiveness of mindfulness training for the treatment of patients at ultra-high risk (1 article) for or in early stages (8 articles) of psychosis.

 

They report that the 9 published research studies found that mindfulness training was safe and effective and produced significant improvements in anxiety, depression and quality of life in these patients. There were insufficient studies assessing the positive and negative symptoms of psychosis to reach any conclusions. It would be useful for future studies to examine in more depth the positive and negative symptoms of psychosis.

 

It is well established that mindfulness training produces improvements in anxiety and depression and improves the quality of life in diverse types of patients. The findings of the present review suggest that it has these same benefits for patients at risk for or in early stages of psychosis. It was disappointing that the currently available findings did not include long-term follow-up. It would be important to establish whether mindfulness interventions early in the disease progression might reduce the deterioration that normally occurs over time.

 

So, improve the psychological health of patients with early psychosis with mindfulness.

 

mindfulness, is effective in alleviating distress in individuals with psychosis who are hearing voices.” – Batya Swift Yasgur

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Vignaud, P., Reilly, K. T., Donde, C., Haesebaert, F., & Brunelin, J. (2019). Clinical Effects of Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Patients With First Episode Psychosis and in Individuals With Ultra-High Risk for Transition to Psychosis: A Review. Frontiers in psychiatry, 10, 797. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00797

 

Abstract

Objectives: Recent clinical studies and meta-analyses have reported the clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions as a complementary treatment for patients with schizophrenia, but their possible efficacy in patients with first episode of psychosis (FEP) and in individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR) of transition to psychosis is less clear. Here, we investigated the current evidence on the usefulness of mindfulness-based interventions in these two populations.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the literature according to the PRISMA guidelines.

Results: Among the 102 references retrieved, 9 responded to the inclusion criteria (8 in FEP patients and 1 in UHR individuals). In FEP patients, mindfulness interventions are well-tolerated and have a satisfactory level of adherence. The clinical benefits consist primarily of reduced anxiety and sadness and improved quality of life. None of the studies reported any increase in positive symptoms.

Conclusion: Future sham-controlled studies with large sample sizes are needed to definitively conclude on the clinical interest of mindfulness-based interventions in FEP patients and UHR individuals as well as to understand their underlying mechanisms of action.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6837071/

 

Tai Chi Practice is a Cost-Effective Treatment to Reduce Falls in Older Adults

Tai Chi Practice is a Cost-Effective Treatment to Reduce Falls in Older Adults

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Across multiple studies, Tai chi appears to reduce risk of falling by 20 to 45 percent and is considered one of the best exercises available for ambulatory older adults with balance concerns.” – Peter Wayne

 

The process of aging affects every aspect of the physical and cognitive domains. Every system in the body deteriorates including motor function with a decline in strength, flexibility, and balance. Impaired balance is a particular problem as it can lead to falls. In the U.S. one third of people over 65 fall each year and 2.5 million are treated in emergency rooms for injuries produced by falls. About 1% of falls result in deaths making it the leading cause of death due to injury among the elderly.

 

Falls, with or without injury, also carry a heavy quality of life impact. A growing number of older adults, fear falling and, as a result, limit their activities and social engagements. This can result in further physical decline, depression, social isolation, and feelings of helplessness. It is obviously important to discover methods to improve balance and decrease the number of falls in the elderly.

 

Tai Chi training is designed to enhance and regulate the functional activities of the body through regulated breathing, mindful concentration, and gentle movements. It includes balance training and has been shown to improve balance and coordination. Indeed, Tai Chi training has been shown to reduce the frequency of falls in the elderly. It is not known, however, if Tai Chi training is more or less cost-effective than other exercises for reducing falls in the elderly.

 

In today’s Research News article “Cost-Effectiveness of a Therapeutic Tai Ji Quan Fall Prevention Intervention for Older Adults at High Risk of Falling.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696718/), Li and colleagues recruited community-based elderly individuals (over 70 years of age) who had experienced at least one fall in the last year and randomly assigned them to one of three conditions; Tai Chi practice, multimodal (mixed) exercises, or stretching. The exercises occurred in twice weekly, 60-minute sessions, for 24 weeks. They were measured before and after training for falls, health related quality of life, health index, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and health-related service utilization expenses.

 

They found that Tai Chi practice resulted in significantly greater reduction in falls and increase in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) than either the multimodal or stretching exercises. The costs of implementing the 3 programs were equivalent. The total health-related utilization cost was $1,958 per participant for Tai Chi, compared with $2,583 for multimodal and $2,131 for stretching. Tai Chi produced greater reductions in falls at a lower cost and resulted in lower health care costs results in in incremental costs of $850 per additional fall prevented and $27,614 per additional QALY gained.

 

These results suggest that Tai Chi practice is a safe, effective, and cost-effective means of reducing falls in the elderly. Falls when they occur in the elderly can be quite devastating and can produce major injuries that can even lead to death. So, their prevention is very important not just for reducing health care costs but for the longevity and quality of life of the individual.

 

So, Tai Chi practice is a cost-effective treatment to reduce falls in older adults.

 

Falling in adults age 65 and older is significantly associated with loss of independence, premature mortality and big health care costs.” – Peter Harmer

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Li, F., Harmer, P., Eckstrom, E., Fitzgerald, K., Akers, L., Chou, L. S., … Winters-Stone, K. (2019). Cost-Effectiveness of a Therapeutic Tai Ji Quan Fall Prevention Intervention for Older Adults at High Risk of Falling. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 74(9), 1504–1510. doi:10.1093/gerona/glz008

 

Abstract

Background

Data on the cost-effectiveness of proven fall prevention exercise interventions are limited. We aimed to establish the cost-effectiveness of Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance (TJQMBB) compared with a conventional exercise intervention for older adults at high risk of falling.

Methods

We conducted a trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis involving 670 older adults who had a history of falling or impaired mobility. Participants received one of three interventions—TJQMBB, multimodal exercise, or stretching exercise (control)—each of which was implemented twice weekly for 24 weeks. The primary cost-effectiveness measure was the incremental cost per additional fall prevented, comparing TJQMBB and multimodal exercise to Stretching and TJQMBB to multimodal exercise, with a secondary measure of incremental cost per additional quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. The intervention was conducted between February 2015 and January 2018, and cost-effectiveness was estimated from a health care system perspective over a 6-month time horizon.

Results

The total cost to deliver the TJQMBB intervention was $202,949 (an average of $906 per participant); for multimodal exercise, it was $223,849 ($1,004 per participant); and for Stretching, it was $210,468 ($903 per participant). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios showed that the multimodal exercise was cost-effective ($850 per additional fall prevented; $27,614 per additional QALY gained) relative to Stretching; however, TJQMBB was the most economically dominant strategy (ie, having lower cost and being clinically more efficacious) compared with multimodal and stretching exercises with regard to cost per additional fall prevented and per additional QALY gained. TJQMBB had a 100% probability of being cost-effective, relative to Stretching, at a threshold of $500 per each additional fall prevented and $10,000 per additional QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of the results when extreme cases, medical costs only, and missing data were considered.

Conclusions

Among community-dwelling older adults at high risk for falls, TJQMBB is a cost-effective means of reducing falls compared with conventional exercise approaches.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696718/

 

Overweight and Obese Yoga Practitioners have a Higher Quality of Life

Overweight and Obese Yoga Practitioners have a Higher Quality of Life

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

Doing yoga decreases stress, improves flexibility, and increases muscle tone and strength. People with larger bodies often have trouble with joint pain; yoga can help by improving the body’s alignment to reduce strain on joints by allowing the frame to bear more of the body’s weight.” – Ann Pizer

 

Obesity has become an epidemic in the industrialized world. In the U.S. the incidence of obesity, defined as a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or above has more than doubled over the last 35 years to currently around 35% of the population, while two thirds of the population are considered overweight or obese (BMI > 25). Obesity has been found to shorten life expectancy by eight years and extreme obesity by 14 years. This occurs because obesity is associated with cardiovascular problems such as coronary heart disease and hypertension, stroke, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, and others.

 

Obviously, there is a need for effective treatments to obese individuals. But, despite copious research and a myriad of dietary and exercise programs, there still is no safe and effective treatment. Mindfulness is known to be associated with lower risk for obesityalter eating behavior and improve health in obesity. This suggests that mindfulness training may be an effective treatment for overeating and obesity alone or in combination with other therapies. Yoga may be particularly beneficial for the obese as it is both a mindfulness practice and an exercise. Yoga practice has been shown to have a myriad of physical and psychological benefits. These include significant loss in weight and body mass index (BMI), resting metabolism, and body fat in obese women with Type 2 diabetes and improve health in the obese.

 

In today’s Research News article “Quality of Life in Yoga Experienced and Yoga Naïve Asian Indian Adults with Obesity.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6515061/), Telles and colleagues recruited overweight and obese (BMI>25) adults (aged 20-59 years) and assessed them for participation in yoga practice and their quality of life, including general self-esteem, enjoyment in physical activities, satisfactory social contacts, satisfaction concerning work, sexual pleasure, and focus on eating behavior.

 

They found that in comparison to non-participants in yoga practice, the yoga participants had significantly higher overall quality of life including higher levels of general self-esteem, enjoyment in physical activities, satisfactory social contacts, and satisfaction concerning work. Hence, participation in yoga practice was found to be associated with significantly higher quality of life in overweight and obese individuals.

 

These findings are correlational and causation cannot be determined. It is possible that yoga practice causes improved quality of life, or that people with high quality of life tend to engage in yoga practice, or that some other factor, e.g. affluence, large social network, results in higher levels of both. Nevertheless, it is clear that practicing yoga is associated with better, more enjoyable lives, that overweight and obese yoga practitioners have a higher quality of life.

 

“’I think yoga can be a wonderful form of movement that bigger-bodied people can adapt for themselves.’ For folks carrying more weight, low-impact exercises like yoga may be more comfortable than, say, running on the pavement.” – Laura McMullen

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Telles, S., Sharma, S. K., Singh, A., Kala, N., Upadhyay, V., Arya, J., & Balkrishna, A. (2019). Quality of Life in Yoga Experienced and Yoga Naïve Asian Indian Adults with Obesity. Journal of obesity, 2019, 9895074. doi:10.1155/2019/9895074

 

Abstract

Background

Obesity adversely affects quality of life which then acts as a barrier to weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Hence, those interventions which positively influence the quality of life along with weight reduction are considered useful for sustained weight loss in persons with obesity. An earlier study showed better quality of life in obese adults who had experience of yoga compared to yoga naïve obese adults. However, the main limitation of the study was the small sample size (n=20 in each group).

Objective

The present study aimed to determine whether with larger sample sizes the quality of life would differ in yoga experienced compared to yoga naïve adults with obesity.

Methods

There were 596 Asian Indian obese adults (age range 20 to 59 years; group mean age ± SD; 43.9 ± 9.9 years): of whom (i) 298 were yoga experienced (154 females; group mean age ± SD; 44.0 ± 9.8 years) with a minimum of 1 month of experience in yoga practice and (ii) 298 were yoga naïve (154 females; group mean age ± SD; 43.8 ± 10.0 years). All the participants were assessed for quality of life using the Moorehead–Ardelt quality of life questionnaire II. Data were drawn from a larger nationwide trial which assessed the effects of yoga compared to nutritional advice on obesity over a one-year follow-up period (CTRI/2018/05/014077).

Results

There were higher participant-reported outcomes for four out of six aspects of quality of life in the yoga experienced compared to the yoga naïve (p < 0.008, based on t values of the least squares linear regression analyses, Bonferroni adjusted, and adjusted for age, gender, and BMI as covariates). These were enjoyment in physical activities, ability to work, self-esteem, and social satisfaction.

Conclusion

Obese adults with yoga experience appear to have better quality of life in specific aspects, compared to yoga naïve persons with a comparable degree of obesity.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6515061/

 

Improve Quality of Life in Women with Ovarian Removal with Mindfulness

Improve Quality of Life in Women with Ovarian Removal with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“midlife women with higher mindfulness scores experienced fewer menopausal symptoms. These findings suggest that mindfulness may be a promising tool to help women reduce menopausal symptoms and overall stress.” – Richa Sood

 

Women who carry genetic markers, BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, have a very high risk of developing ovarian cancer. Often as a preventative measure, women opt to have their ovaries and fallopian tubes surgically removed (salpingo-oophorectomy). A consequence of this procedure is to produce the onset of menopausal symptoms. These include hot flashes, (n + Add New Category ight) sweats, vaginal dryness, loss of sexual desire, and pain during intercourse. Hormone treatments may reduce the symptom intensity but do not eliminate them.

 

Hence, there is a need to find alternative treatment to help relieve these troubling symptoms following ovary removal. Mindfulness training has been shown to help reduce the symptoms of natural meonpause. But it is not known whether mindfulness training might also help alleviate these symptoms in women after surgical removal of the ovaries.

 

In today’s Research News article “Mindfulness-based stress reduction for menopausal symptoms after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (PURSUE study): a randomised controlled trial.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587763/), van Driel and colleagues recruited women who carried the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and had undergone surgical removal of their ovaries and fallopian tubes before the age of 52 years. They continued care as usual and were randomly assigned to receive an 8-week program of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or no additional treatment. The MBSR program met for 2.5 hours once a week along with 30-45 minutes of daily home practice and consisted of discussion, meditation, yoga, and body scan practices. The women were measured before and after MBSR and 3 and 9 months later for menopausal-specific quality of life, sexual function, and sexual distress.

 

They found that in comparison to baseline and the usual care control group, the group that received MBSR training had significantly improved menopausal-specific quality of life, including improved vasomotor (i.e. burden caused by hot flushes, night sweats, and sweating in general) and physical symptoms (e.g. burden caused by stamina reduction, aches, and urination frequency) quality of life. These improvements were found immediately after MBSR training and 9 months later. No significant improvements were found for sexual function or distress.

In women

The study results suggest that MBSR training is a safe and effective treatment to produce long-term improvements in the menopausal quality of life in women who carry the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and had undergone surgical removal of their ovaries and fallopian tubes. MBSR consists of a package of practices. It will remain for future research to determine which of these practices or which combination of practices are necessary and sufficient to produce the benefits.

 

So, improve quality of life in women with ovarian removal with mindfulness.

 

“Mindfulness cannot entirely remove the symptoms of menopause, but it can help you deal with them in a calmer and more compassionate way – and self compassion boosts mental health. Learning these simple techniques to focus our awareness, relax the body, and ride out the storm, (whether the storm is physical or emotional) can pay great dividends’” – Karita Cullen

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

van Driel, C., de Bock, G. H., Schroevers, M. J., & Mourits, M. J. (2019). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for menopausal symptoms after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (PURSUE study): a randomised controlled trial. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 126(3), 402–411. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.15471

 

Abstract

Objective

To assess the short‐ and long‐term effects of mindfulness‐based stress reduction (MBSR) on the resulting quality of life, sexual functioning, and sexual distress after risk‐reducing salpingo‐oophorectomy (RRSO).

Design

Randomised controlled trial.

Setting

A specialised family cancer clinic of the university medical center Groningen.

Population

Sixty‐six women carriers of the BRCA1/2 mutation who developed at least two moderate‐to‐severe menopausal symptoms after RRSO.

Methods

Women were randomised to an 8‐week MBSR training programme or to care as usual (CAU).

Main outcome measures

Change in the Menopause‐Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL), the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Female Sexual Distress Scale, administered from baseline at 3, 6, and 12 months. Linear mixed modelling was applied to compare the effect of MBSR with CAU over time.

Results

At 3 and 12 months, there were statistically significant improvements in the MENQOL for the MBSR group compared with the CAU group (both P = 0.04). At 3 months, the mean MENQOL scores were 3.5 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI 3.0–3.9) and 3.8 (95% CI 3.3–4.2) for the MBSR and CAU groups, respectively; at 12 months, the corresponding values were 3.6 (95% CI 3.1–4.0) and 3.9 (95% CI 3.5–4.4). No significant differences were found between the MBSR and CAU groups in the other scores.

Conclusion

Mindfulness‐based stress reduction was effective at improving quality of life in the short‐ and long‐term for patients with menopausal symptoms after RRSO; however, it was not associated with an improvement in sexual functioning or distress.

Tweetable abstract

Mindfulness improves menopause‐related quality of life in women after risk‐reducing salpingo‐oophorectomy.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587763/

Improve Physical and Psychological Symptoms and Quality of Life in People Living with HIV with Mind-Body Practices

Improve Physical and Psychological Symptoms and Quality of Life in People Living with HIV with Mind-Body Practices

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Our bodies and minds are intimately connected. Living with HIV can be stressful and can challenge our emotional well-being. Similarly, stress and anxiety can affect our bodies. So maintaining “a healthy mind in a healthy body” is key.” – CATIE

 

More than 35 million people worldwide and 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV infection. In 1996, the advent of the protease inhibitor and the so-called cocktail changed the prognosis for HIV. Since this development a 20-year-old infected with HIV can now expect to live on average to age 69. Hence, living with HIV is a long-term reality for a very large group of people. People living with HIV infection experience a wide array of physical and psychological symptoms which decrease their perceived quality of life. The symptoms include chronic pain, muscle aches, anxiety, depression, weakness, fear/worries, difficulty with concentration, concerns regarding the need to interact with a complex healthcare system, stigma, and the challenge to come to terms with a new identity as someone living with HIV.

 

Mindfulness training has been found to be effective in treating chronic pain conditions. In addition, mindfulness training has been shown to improve psychological well-being, lower depression and strengthen the immune system of patients with HIV infection. The research and evidence is accumulating. Hence it makes sense to stop and summarize the research on the ability of mind-body practices to help relieve the symptoms of patients living with HIV.

 

In today’s Research News article “Mind-body practices for people living with HIV: a systematic scoping review.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6560810/ ), Ramirez-Garcia and colleagues review and summarize the published research studies of the effectiveness of mind-body practices for the treatment of the symptoms of HIV infection. “Mind-body practices include Tai Chi, Qigong, yoga, meditation, and all types of relaxation” training. They identified 84 published research studies.

 

They report that these studies found that for patients with HIV, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) decrease the physical symptoms and the side effects of the drug treatment, and improves the patient’s psychological state. They also report that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the combining at least three relaxation techniques decreases the patient’s physical and psychological symptoms, and increase quality of life and health. Yoga practice was also found to lower the patient’s blood pressure. Tai Chi, Qigong, and relaxation techniques were found to improve the patient’s physical and psychological condition.

 

Hence the accumulated research suggests that mind-body therapies in addition to antiretroviral treatment are safe and effective treatments to improve the health, well-being, and quality of life of patients living with HIV. This is important as these patients will be living for many years with the symptoms of HIV and the side effects of its treatment. The addition of mind-body practices can help make living with HIV more tolerable and improve the patients’ lives.

 

So, improve physical and psychological symptoms and quality of life in people living with HIV with Mindbody practices.

 

“Living a healthy lifestyle can help you better control HIV and prevent the progression to AIDS. Eating a healthy diet and maintaining a healthy body weight, exercising regularly, practicing safe sex, and following your medicine regimen are all important steps in managing HIV.” – Johns Hopkins Health

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Ramirez-Garcia, M. P., Gagnon, M. P., Colson, S., Côté, J., Flores-Aranda, J., & Dupont, M. (2019). Mind-body practices for people living with HIV: a systematic scoping review. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 19(1), 125. doi:10.1186/s12906-019-2502-z

 

Abstract

Background

Mind-body practices are frequently used by people living with HIV to reduce symptoms and improve wellbeing. These include Tai Chi, Qigong, yoga, meditation, and all types of relaxation. Although there is substantial research on the efficacy of mind-body practices in people living with HIV, there is no summary of the available evidence on these practices. The aim of this scoping review is to map available evidence of mind-body practices in people living with HIV.

Methods

The Arksey and O’Malley (Int J Soc Res Methodol 8:19-32, 2005) methodological framework was used. A search of 16 peer-review and grey literature databases, websites, and relevant journals (1983–2015) was conducted. To identify relevant studies, two reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria to all abstracts or full articles. Inclusion criteria were: participants were people living with HIV; the intervention was any mind-body practice; and the study design was any research study evaluating one or several of these practices. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by one reviewer and checked by a second, as needed, using the criteria that Cochrane Collaboration recommends for systematic reviews of interventions (Higgins and Green, Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of intervention. 2011). A tabular and narrative synthesis was carried out for each mind-body practice.

Results

One hundred thirty-six documents drawing on 84 studies met the inclusion criteria. The most widely studied mind-body practice was a combination of least three relaxation techniques (n = 20), followed in declining order by meditation (n = 17), progressive muscle relaxation (n = 10), yoga (n = 9) and hypnosis (n = 8). Slightly over half (47/84) of studies used a RCT design. The interventions were mainly (46/84) conducted in groups and most (51/84) included daily individual home practice. All but two studies were unblinded to participants.

Conclusion

The amount of available research on mind-body practices varies by practice. Almost half of the studies in this review were at high risk of bias. However, mindfulness, a combination of least three relaxation techniques and cognitive behavioral strategies, and yoga show encouraging results in decreasing physical and psychological symptoms and improving quality of life and health in people living with HIV. More rigorous studies are necessary to confirm the results of Tai Chi, Qigong, and some relaxation techniques.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6560810/

 

Improve Mobility and Quality of Life in Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy with Yoga

Improve Mobility and Quality of Life in Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy with Yoga

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Exercise can increase blood flow to the hands and feet and may offer temporary relief from pain. People should discuss the exercises that are best for them with their doctor. Low-impact activities, such as swimming, low-impact aerobics, or yoga, are the safest options.” – Zawn Villines

 

Receiving a diagnosis of cancer has a huge impact on most people. Feelings of depression, anxiety, and fear are very common and are normal responses to this life-changing and potentially life-ending experience. But, surviving cancer carries with it a number of problems. Painful Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a frequent side effect of cancer treatment. This Neuropathy is characterized by damage to the nervous system resulting from chemotherapy. Between 30-100% of patients can experience this neuropathy.  It can affect patients motor abilities including walking, and balance. But it can also affect driving, relationships, work, writing, exercise, sleep and sexual activity.

 

Mindfulness training has been shown to help with cancer recovery and help to relieve chronic pain. It can also help treat the residual physical and psychological symptoms, including stress,  sleep disturbance, and anxiety and depression. Yoga practice is a form of mindfulness training that has been shown to help relieve chronic pain and be beneficial for cancer patients.  So, it makes sense to examine the ability of yoga practice to help relieve the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

 

In today’s Research News article “Impact of Somatic Yoga and Meditation on Fall Risk, Function, and Quality of Life for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Syndrome in Cancer Survivors.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537287/), Galantino and colleagues recruited cancer survivors who had completed all treatments but who had some degree of peripheral neuropathy. They participated in a 90 minute, twice a week for 8-weeks, Hatha yoga program including postures, breathwork, and meditation. They were also asked to practice at home. They were measured before and after treatment for motor functions, balance, lower extremity flexibility, pain, neurotoxicity, perceived stress, sleep quality, spiritual efficacy, fear of falling, vibration sense, and salivary cortisol. The participants were asked to record their reflections on their yoga practice in a diary.

 

They found that at the completion of the yoga training the patients had significantly improved mobility, flexibility, balance, risk of falling, perceived pain, pain interference with life activities, sensory systems, muscular weakness, foot vibration sensitivity, and perceived stress. They did not find any adverse effects of the yoga practice on the patients. Qualitative analysis of the patient diaries revealed that the patients noted improvements in enhanced sensations in the extremities, that the yoga practice helped them in managing their symptoms, that the improvement in physical function allowed return to work and re-engagement in hobbies, greater ability to relax, and enjoyment of the social aspects of the yoga practice.

 

It should be noted that this was a small pilot study and there wasn’t a control condition so the results need to be interpreted with caution. But the results are very encouraging and suggest that a large randomized controlled trial is justified and needed to verify the efficacy of the yoga program. But prior to the program there was no improvement over time, so participation in the program likely produced the benefits. The benefits obtained in this study are significant and important contributing to the daily functions, mental and physical health of the patients.

 

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is painful, persistent, disruptive, and debilitating. The degree of improvement seen in the patients after yoga practice markedly improved their symptoms and greatly reduced their suffering. Importantly, after yoga practice the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy were greatly reduced allowing the patients to better function and to enjoy their lives.

 

So, improve mobility and quality of life in patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy with yoga.

 

“They may also benefit from exercise programs such as water exercise, a strength & balance class, Tai Chi, and yoga.  Although patients survived their cancer, giving them their quality of life back should be a priority for those that are suffering from CIPN.” – Pam McMillan

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Galantino, M. L., Tiger, R., Brooks, J., Jang, S., & Wilson, K. (). Impact of Somatic Yoga and Meditation on Fall Risk, Function, and Quality of Life for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Syndrome in Cancer Survivors. Integrative cancer therapies, 18, 1534735419850627. doi:10.1177/1534735419850627

 

Abstract

Objective. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) syndrome causes significant pain as an adverse effect of treatment, with few nonpharmacological interventions tested. A somatic yoga and meditation (SYM) intervention on functional outcomes and quality of life (QOL) was investigated. Design and methods. Individuals diagnosed with CIPN were enrolled in an open-label, single-arm, mixed-methods feasibility trial. Participants and Setting. In an outpatient rehabilitation center, ten participants with median age 64.4 years (47-81) attended 61% of the sessions with no adverse events. Intervention. SYM twice a week for 8 weeks for 1.5 hours, with home program and journaling. Main outcome measures. Primary functional outcomes included Sit and Reach (SR), Functional Reach (FR), and Timed Up and Go (TUG). Self-reported Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (PNQ) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy—Neurotoxicity (FACT-GOG-NTX) were secondary CIPN outcomes. Biomarkers included salivary cortisol (stress) and bioesthesiometer (vibration). Results: Quantitative findings. Significant improvements were found in flexibility (SR; P = .006); balance (FR; P = .001) and fall risk (TUG; P = .004). PNQ improved significantly (P = .003) with other measures improving non-significantly. Qualitative findings. Five themes emerged: (1) vacillation of CIPN pain perception over time; (2) transferability of skills to daily activities; (3) improvement in physical function; (4) perceived relaxation as an effect of SYM; and (5) group engagement provided a social context for not feeling isolated with CIPN. Conclusion. Preliminary data suggest SYM may improve QOL, flexibility, and balance in cancer survivors with CIPN, with a fully powered randomized controlled trial indicated.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537287/

 

Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients with Yoga

Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients with Yoga

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Studies have shown mindfulness-based stress reduction can be effective in alleviating anxiety and depression, decreasing long-term emotional and physical side effects of treatments and improving the quality of sleep in breast cancer patients.” – Breast Cancer Research Foundation

 

Receiving a diagnosis of cancer has a huge impact on most people. Feelings of depression, anxiety, and fear are very common and are normal responses to this life-changing and potentially life-ending experience. But cancer diagnosis is not necessarily a death sentence. Over half of the people diagnosed with cancer are still alive 10 years later and this number is rapidly increasing. But, surviving cancer carries with it a number of problems. Anxiety, depression, fatigue and insomnia are common symptoms in the aftermath of surviving breast cancer. These symptoms markedly reduce the quality of life of the patients.

 

Mindfulness training has been shown to help with cancer recovery and help to alleviate many of the residual physical and psychological symptoms, including fatiguestress,  sleep disturbance, and anxiety and depression. Yoga practice is a form of mindfulness training that is also an exercise that has been shown to be beneficial for cancer patients. The research on yoga practice as a treatment for patients recovering from breast cancer has been accumulating. It is thus important to take a step back and summarize what has been learned.

 

In today’s Research News article “Yoga for improving health-related quality of life, mental health and cancer-related symptoms in women diagnosed with breast cancer.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465041/), Cramer and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of yoga practice as a treatment for patients recovering from breast cancer. They identified 24 published research studies, 17 of which compared yoga practice to no-treatment, while 4 compared it to a psychoeducation program while 3 compared it to another exercise.

 

They found that the published research reports that in comparison to no-treatment yoga practice significantly improves health related quality of life and reduces fatigue and disturbance of sleep in women recovering from breast cancer. When compared to psychoeducation programs (4 studies), yoga practice had additional significant reductions of anxiety and depression. But, when compared to other exercise programs (3 studies), no significant effects were reported.

 

These results are interesting and suggest that yoga practice is a safe and effective treatment for women recovering from breast cancer, improving their quality of life and physical and mental well-being. The fact that these benefits were not significantly different from other forms of exercise suggests that the it’s the exercise provided by yoga that is the important aspect of the practice producing the benefits. Regardless, it is clear that yoga practice is quite helpful for the well-being of women recovering from breast cancer.

 

So, improve symptoms and quality of life in breast cancer patients with yoga.

 

“Results show promise for mindfulness-based interventions to treat common psychological problems such as anxiety, stress, and depression in cancer survivors and to improve overall quality of life.” — Linda E. Carlson

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Klose, P., Lange, S., Langhorst, J., & Dobos, G. J. (2017). Yoga for improving health-related quality of life, mental health and cancer-related symptoms in women diagnosed with breast cancer. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 1(1), CD010802. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010802.pub2

 

Abstract

Background

Breast cancer is the cancer most frequently diagnosed in women worldwide. Even though survival rates are continually increasing, breast cancer is often associated with long‐term psychological distress, chronic pain, fatigue and impaired quality of life. Yoga comprises advice for an ethical lifestyle, spiritual practice, physical activity, breathing exercises and meditation. It is a complementary therapy that is commonly recommended for breast cancer‐related impairments and has been shown to improve physical and mental health in people with different cancer types.

Objectives

To assess effects of yoga on health‐related quality of life, mental health and cancer‐related symptoms among women with a diagnosis of breast cancer who are receiving active treatment or have completed treatment.

Search methods

We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Specialised Register, MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1), Indexing of Indian Medical Journals (IndMED), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal and Clinicaltrials.gov on 29 January 2016. We also searched reference lists of identified relevant trials or reviews, as well as conference proceedings of the International Congress on Complementary Medicine Research (ICCMR), the European Congress for Integrative Medicine (ECIM) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). We applied no language restrictions.

Selection criteria

Randomised controlled trials were eligible when they (1) compared yoga interventions versus no therapy or versus any other active therapy in women with a diagnosis of non‐metastatic or metastatic breast cancer, and (2) assessed at least one of the primary outcomes on patient‐reported instruments, including health‐related quality of life, depression, anxiety, fatigue or sleep disturbances.

Data collection and analysis

Two review authors independently collected data on methods and results. We expressed outcomes as standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and conducted random‐effects model meta‐analyses. We assessed potential risk of publication bias through visual analysis of funnel plot symmetry and heterogeneity between studies by using the Chi2 test and the I2 statistic. We conducted subgroup analyses for current treatment status, time since diagnosis, stage of cancer and type of yoga intervention.

Main results

We included 24 studies with a total of 2166 participants, 23 of which provided data for meta‐analysis. Thirteen studies had low risk of selection bias, five studies reported adequate blinding of outcome assessment and 15 studies had low risk of attrition bias.

Seventeen studies that compared yoga versus no therapy provided moderate‐quality evidence showing that yoga improved health‐related quality of life (pooled SMD 0.22, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.40; 10 studies, 675 participants), reduced fatigue (pooled SMD ‐0.48, 95% CI ‐0.75 to ‐0.20; 11 studies, 883 participants) and reduced sleep disturbances in the short term (pooled SMD ‐0.25, 95% CI ‐0.40 to ‐0.09; six studies, 657 participants). The funnel plot for health‐related quality of life was asymmetrical, favouring no therapy, and the funnel plot for fatigue was roughly symmetrical. This hints at overall low risk of publication bias. Yoga did not appear to reduce depression (pooled SMD ‐0.13, 95% CI ‐0.31 to 0.05; seven studies, 496 participants; low‐quality evidence) or anxiety (pooled SMD ‐0.53, 95% CI ‐1.10 to 0.04; six studies, 346 participants; very low‐quality evidence) in the short term and had no medium‐term effects on health‐related quality of life (pooled SMD 0.10, 95% CI ‐0.23 to 0.42; two studies, 146 participants; low‐quality evidence) or fatigue (pooled SMD ‐0.04, 95% CI ‐0.36 to 0.29; two studies, 146 participants; low‐quality evidence). Investigators reported no serious adverse events.

Four studies that compared yoga versus psychosocial/educational interventions provided moderate‐quality evidence indicating that yoga can reduce depression (pooled SMD ‐2.29, 95% CI ‐3.97 to ‐0.61; four studies, 226 participants), anxiety (pooled SMD ‐2.21, 95% CI ‐3.90 to ‐0.52; three studies, 195 participants) and fatigue (pooled SMD ‐0.90, 95% CI ‐1.31 to ‐0.50; two studies, 106 participants) in the short term. Very low‐quality evidence showed no short‐term effects on health‐related quality of life (pooled SMD 0.81, 95% CI ‐0.50 to 2.12; two studies, 153 participants) or sleep disturbances (pooled SMD ‐0.21, 95% CI ‐0.76 to 0.34; two studies, 119 participants). No trial adequately reported safety‐related data.

Three studies that compared yoga versus exercise presented very low‐quality evidence showing no short‐term effects on health‐related quality of life (pooled SMD ‐0.04, 95% CI ‐0.30 to 0.23; three studies, 233 participants) or fatigue (pooled SMD ‐0.21, 95% CI ‐0.66 to 0.25; three studies, 233 participants); no trial provided safety‐related data.

Authors’ conclusions

Moderate‐quality evidence supports the recommendation of yoga as a supportive intervention for improving health‐related quality of life and reducing fatigue and sleep disturbances when compared with no therapy, as well as for reducing depression, anxiety and fatigue, when compared with psychosocial/educational interventions. Very low‐quality evidence suggests that yoga might be as effective as other exercise interventions and might be used as an alternative to other exercise programmes.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465041/