Slow Mental Decline in the Elderly with Tai Chi

Slow Mental Decline in the Elderly with Tai Chi

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“improvement of heart function combined with increased muscular power meant that the martial art should be considered the preferred technique for elderly people to maintain good health.” – The Telegraph

 

We celebrate the increasing longevity of the population. But, aging is a mixed blessing. The aging process involves a systematic progressive decline of the body and the brain. Every system in the body deteriorates including cognitive function (thinking ability) and motor function with a decline in strength, flexibility, and balance. It is inevitable. In addition, many elderly experience withdrawal and isolation from social interactions. There is some hope as there is evidence that these declines can be slowed. For example, a healthy diet and a regular program of exercise can slow the physical and cognitive decline of the body with aging. Also, contemplative practices such as meditation, yoga, and tai chi or qigong have all been shown to be beneficial in slowing or delaying physical and mental decline.

 

Tai Chi has been practiced for thousands of years with benefits for health and longevity. Tai Chi training is designed to enhance function and regulate the activities of the body through regulated breathing, mindful concentration, and gentle movements. Only recently though have the effects of Tai Chi practice been scrutinized with empirical research and found to be effective for an array of physical and psychological issues. Tai Chi has been shown to help the elderly improve attentionbalance, reducing fallsarthritiscognitive functionmemory, and reduce age related deterioration of the brain. Because Tai Chi is not strenuous, involving slow gentle movements, and is safe, having no appreciable side effects, it is appropriate for all ages including the elderly and for individuals with illnesses that limit their activities or range of motion.

 

In today’s Research News article “Tai Chi Improves Cognition and Plasma BDNF in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.”  Sungkarat and colleagues recruited elderly participants with mild cognitive impairments and randomly assigned them to either receive educational instruction related to cognitive impairment and fall prevention or practice Tai Chi at home guided by a 50-minute video, 3 times per week, for 6 months. They were measured at the beginning and end of training for cognitive performance, including memory, visuospatial ability, and executive function, and plasma markers for inflammation and neuroprotection, including plasma BDNF, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels.

 

They found that compared to baseline and control participants, the elderly who practiced Tai Chi had significantly improved levels of cognitive function, including improvements in memory and thinking ability (executive function). In addition, Tai Chi practice was found to significantly increase the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF is a neurotrophic factor that works to protect the brain from deterioration and promote the growth of brain cells. Hence, they found that Tai Chi practice reduces cognitive decline with aging and increases neuroprotection.

 

The cognitive decline with aging has been associated with degeneration of neural tissues. On the other hand, mindfulness practices have been found to change the brain and protect it against age related decline. The present results add further evidence that mindfulness practices, Tai Chi  in particular, improves memory and cognitive performance and promotes neuroprotection in the elderly. The attractiveness of the low intensity, low cost, convenient, and socially fun nature of Tai Chi practice makes it a great treatment for the prevention of age related decline.

 

So, slow mental decline in the elderly with Tai Chi.

 

“Scientists . . . found increases in brain volume and improvements on tests of memory and thinking in Chinese seniors who practiced Tai Chi three times a week.” – Science Daily

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Somporn Sungkarat, PhD, SirinunBoripuntakul, PhD, Sirinart Kumfu, PhD, Stephen R. Lord, PhD, Nipon Chattipakorn, MD, PhD. Tai Chi Improves Cognition and Plasma BDNF in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. First Published January 20, 2018, https://doi-org.ezproxy.shsu.edu/10.1177/15459683177536

 

Abstract

Background. Effects of Tai Chi (TC) on specific cognitive function and mechanisms by which TC may improve cognition in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) remain unknown. Objective. To examine the effects of TC on cognitive functions and plasma biomarkers (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], and interleukin-10 [IL-10]) in a-MCI. Methods. A total of 66 older adults with a-MCI (mean age = 67.9 years) were randomized to either a TC (n = 33) or a control group (n = 33). Participants in the TC group learned TC with a certified instructor and then practiced at home for 50 min/session, 3 times/wk for 6 months. The control group received educational material that covered information related to cognition. The primary outcome was cognitive performance, including Logical Memory (LM) delayed recall, Block Design, Digit Span, and Trail Making Test B minus A (TMT B-A). The secondary outcomes were plasma biomarkers, including BDNF, TNF-α, and IL-10. Results. At the end of the trial, performance on the LM and TMT B-A was significantly better in the TC group compared with the control group after adjusting for age, gender, and education (P < .05). Plasma BDNF level was significantly increased for the TC group, whereas the other outcome measures were similar between the 2 groups after adjusting for age and gender (P < .05). Conclusions. TC training significantly improved memory and the mental switching component of executive function in older adults with a-MCI, possibly via an upregulation of BDNF.

http://journals.sagepub.com.ezproxy.shsu.edu/doi/full/10.1177/1545968317753682

Change Major Depression Brain Chemistry with Mindfulness

MBCT Major Depression2 Li

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy helps participants in the classes to see more clearly the patterns of the mind; and to learn how to recognize when their mood is beginning to go down. It helps break the link between negative mood and the negative thinking that it would normally have triggered. Participants develop the capacity to allow distressing mood, thoughts and sensations to come and go, without having to battle with them. They find that they can stay in touch with the present moment, without having to ruminate about the past, or worry about the future.” – Center for Suicide Research

 

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a severe mood disorder that includes mood dysregulation and cognitive impairment. It is estimated that 16 million adults in the U.S. (6.9% of the population suffered from major depression in the past year and affects females (8.4%) to a great extent than males (5.2%). It’s the second-leading cause of disability in the world following heart disease. It has also been shown that depression is, to a large extent, inherited, but can also be affected by the environment. Since the genes basically encode when, where, and how chemicals are produced, it is likely that there are changes in brain chemistry produced by the genes responsible for Major Depressive Disorder.

 

The usual treatment of choice for MDD is drug treatment. This supports the altered brain chemistry notion for MDD since the most effective treatment for MDD, drug treatment, changes brain chemistry. In fact, it is estimated that 10% of the U.S. population is taking some form of antidepressant medication. But a substantial proportion of patients (~40%) do not respond to drug treatment. In addition, the drugs can have nasty side effects. So, there is need to explore other treatment options.

 

Mindfulness meditation is a safe alternative that has been shown to be effective for major depressive disorder even in individuals who do not respond to drug treatment. Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) was developed specifically to treat depression and has been shown to be very effective in treating existing depression and preventing relapse when depression is in remission. It makes sense that if altered brain chemistry underlies MDD and that MBCT is an effective treatment for MDD, then MBCT must in some way change brain chemistry. In today’s Research News article “Evaluating metabolites in patients with major depressive disorder who received mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and healthy controls using short echo MRSI at 7 Tesla”

https://www.facebook.com/ContemplativeStudiesCenter/photos/a.628903887133541.1073741828.627681673922429/1196100317080559/?type=3&theater

Li and colleagues explore brain chemistry changes in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and the effects of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on those brain chemistry changes.

 

They recruited patients who were diagnosed with MDD but who were not currently taking antidepressant drugs and who were not practicing meditation or yoga. The brains of these patients and healthy controls were scanned with a powerful imaging technique called Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI). It is capable of non-invasively detecting levels of particular chemicals in the brain. The patients then received an 8-week MBCT group therapy followed by rescanning of the brains for the same chemicals.

 

They found that the MDD patients compared to healthy controls had elevated levels of choline-containing compounds and decreased levels of N-acetyl aspartate, myo-inositol, and glutathione.

These chemicals are breakdown products of active brain chemicals (metabolites). These are all markers of brain function. The heightened levels of choline-containing compounds suggests that there is with increased cell density and/or membrane turnover in MDD. The decreased levels of N-acetyl aspartate suggest that there is a loss of neurons or neuronal function in MDD. The decreased levels of myo-inositol suggest that there is a loss of or dysfunction of glial cells in MDD. Finally, the decreased levels of glutathione suggest that there is a lower level of neuron excitation in the brain in MDD.

 

Importantly, Li and colleagues found that MBCT significantly reduced depression levels and at the same time normalized the levels of all of the metabolites that had abnormal levels in the patients. These are potentially important results. They demonstrate altered brain chemistry in MDD suggestive of dysfunction in the normal activities of the nervous system and point to potential causal factors in MDD. They also provide suggestions as to how MBCT changes the brain to effectively treat MDD.

 

It should be noted that the changes in metabolites in Major Depressive Disorder may be the result of the depression rather than its cause. The fact that the changes vanished after treatment reduced depression tends to support this contention. It is a complex disease effecting the most complex entity in the universe, the human brain. Hence, there is still a lot of work to do to determine the causal factors in MDD.

 

Regardless, change major depression brain chemistry with mindfulness.

 

 “Mindfulness is the only thing I know to do that can dig me out of despair and give me even a few seconds of time out from me,” – Ruby Wax

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies