Reduce the Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with Mindfulness

Reduce the Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

Normally I would have lost my keys and then gone tearing through the house looking for them. ( . . . ) And then ( . . . ) completely losing yourself in that. And these days that just doesn’t happen anymore. When I lose something now it’s more like, “okay, then let’s just look for it,” and I go and stand calmly in my room and then at some point I find it.” – Study Participant

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is most commonly found in children, but for about half it persists into adulthood. It’s estimated that about 5% of the adult population has ADHD. Hence, this is a very large problem that can produce inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and emotional issues, and reduce quality of life. The most common treatment is drugs, like methylphenidate, Ritalin, which helps reducing symptoms in about 30% of the people with ADHD. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of the drugs appears to be markedly reduced after the first year. In addition, the drugs often have troublesome side effects, can be addictive, and can readily be abused. So, drugs, at present, do not appear to be a good solution, only affecting some, only for a short time, and with unwanted side effects.

 

There are indications that mindfulness practices may be an effective treatment for ADHD. It makes sense that it should be, as the skills and abilities strengthened by mindfulness practices are identical to those that are defective in ADHD,  attentionimpulse controlexecutive functionemotion control, and mood improvement. In addition, unlike drugs, they are relatively safe interventions that have minimal troublesome side effects. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a mindfulness practice that contains Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and assigned homework. During therapy the patient is trained in mindfulness and to investigate and alter aberrant thought patterns.

 

In today’s Research News article “The Feasibility, Effectiveness, and Process of Change of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Adults With ADHD: A Mixed-Method Pilot Study.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7081523/), Janssen and colleagues recruited adults diagnosed with ADHD who had completed an 8-week program of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). Training occurred in weekly 2.5-hour sessions along with 30 minutes per day of home practice. They were measured before and after training for mindfulness, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms, behavioral regulation, metacognition, self-compassion, general functioning, and health status. They also participated in a focus group 3 months after training.

 

Only 16% of the patients failed to complete training. They found that in comparison to baseline, following Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) training there were significant increases in mental health, self-compassion, total executive functioning, including metacognition including the self-monitor, working memory, plan/organize, task monitor and organization of materials subscales and significant reductions in total ADHD symptoms, including inattention and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. The analysis of the focus group data indicated that the participants believed that they improved due to increased ability to self-regulate.

 

Although this study did not have a comparison, control, condition, the results are similar to those found in prior controlled studies that mindfulness training improves the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study demonstrated that Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) training was feasible and acceptable for the treatment of adult patients with ADHD and that the treatment improved their symptoms, mental health, cognitive ability, and the patients’ ability to regulate their own behavior.

 

So, reduce the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with mindfulness.

 

“I can spend the whole day in a haze, but when we focus consciously on our breathing, I’m able to turn it around. I also have that during meetings or discussions. If I’ve had enough at a certain point and I notice my mind wandering off, I think about the breathing and I’m able to be more present again.” – Study Participant

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Janssen, L., de Vries, A. M., Hepark, S., & Speckens, A. (2020). The Feasibility, Effectiveness, and Process of Change of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Adults With ADHD: A Mixed-Method Pilot Study. Journal of attention disorders, 24(6), 928–942. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054717727350

 

Abstract

Objective: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a promising psychosocial intervention for adult ADHD. The feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted MBCT program is explored, together with the possible process of change. Method: Mixed-method study with 31 ADHD patients participating in an adapted MBCT program. Self-report questionnaires on ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, patient functioning, and health status were administered before and after MBCT. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 patients. Results: A modest drop-out of n = 5 (16%) was found. MBCT resulted in a significant reduction of ADHD symptoms and improvements of executive functioning, self-compassion, and mental health. Qualitative analysis provided insight in facilitators and barriers participants experienced, and their process of change. Conclusion: The adapted MBCT program seemed to be feasible for adults with ADHD and preliminary evidence for the effectiveness is shown. An adequately powered Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) is needed to further examine the effectiveness of MBCT for ADHD.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7081523/

 

Improve Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Youth with Mind-Body Practices

Improve Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Youth with Mind-Body Practices

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

mindfulness practice can help us pay attention better, resist distractions, be less impulsive, remember what we are doing in the moment, and regulate our own emotions, it is helpful whether we have ADHD or not. But it holds special interest for those with ADHD.” – Casey Dixon

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is most commonly found in children, but for about half it persists into adulthood. It’s estimated that about 5% of the adult population has ADHD. Hence, this is a very large problem that can produce inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and emotional issues, and reduce quality of life. The most common treatment is drugs, like methylphenidate, Ritalin, which helps reducing symptoms in about 30% of the people with ADHD. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of the drugs appears to be markedly reduced after the first year. In addition, the drugs often have troublesome side effects, can be addictive, and can readily be abused. So, drugs, at present, do not appear to be a good solution, only affecting some, only for a short time, and with unwanted side effects.

 

There are indications that mind-body practices training may be an effective treatment for ADHD. It makes sense that it should be, as the skills and abilities strengthened by mind-body practices training are identical to those that are defective in ADHD,  attentionimpulse controlexecutive functionemotion control, and mood improvement. In addition, unlike drugs, they are relatively safe interventions that have minimal troublesome side effects. Since mind-body practices is so promising as treatments, it is important to step back and summarize what has been learned in the scientific research of the effectiveness of mindfulness training for ADHD.

 

In today’s Research News article “Interventions Based on Mind-Body Therapies for the Improvement of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Youth: A Systematic Review.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6680862/), Barranco-Ruiz and colleagues review and summarize the published research studies of the effectiveness pf mind-body practices in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). They found 12 published randomized trials employing the mind-body practices of school based 8-week mindfulness trainings and yoga practices that were applied to children and adolescents of 5 to 18 years of age.

 

They found that 11 of the 12 reviewed studies reported significant improvements in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) following mind-body treatment in the youths. There were significant improvements in the symptoms of ADHD including significant increases in attention and planning, and significant decreases in inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, anxiety, shyness, social problems, perfectionism, inhibition, self-reported emotion dysregulation, and depressive symptoms.

 

These are impressive results. It has been previously shown with disparate healthy and ill populations that mindfulness training produces increases in attention and significant decreases in inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, anxiety, social problems, perfectionism, inhibition, emotion dysregulation, and depression. The present review extends these findings to children and adolescents. This is important as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highest among children and adolescents. These results suggest that mindfulness training and yoga practices are safe and effective in improving ADHD and its symptoms. Mind-body practices may be an excellent alternative to standard drug treatment.

 

So, improve Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in youth with mind-body practices.

 

Yoga has been shown to help improve ADHD symptoms. . . . Like mindfulness meditation, it ups dopamine levels and strengthens the prefrontal cortex. One study found that kids who practiced yoga moves for 20 minutes twice a week for 8 weeks improved on tests that measure attention and focus.” – WebMD

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Barranco-Ruiz, Y., Etxabe, B. E., Ramírez-Vélez, R., & Villa-González, E. (2019). Interventions Based on Mind-Body Therapies for the Improvement of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Youth: A Systematic Review. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 55(7), 325. doi:10.3390/medicina55070325

 

Abstract

Background and objectives: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Mind–body therapies (MBTs) seem to be effective for improving health in different populations; however, whether a positive effect occurs in children and adolescents with ADHD is still controversial. The main aim of this systematic review was to analyse the interventions based on MBT aimed to improve the main ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was conducted following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to identify MBT studies on children and adolescents (4–18 years) with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD. Study quality was evaluated by the NIH quality tool (U.S. National Institute of Health). Results: There were positive results in eleven out of twelve included studies regarding the effect of the MBT interventions on ADHD symptoms. With respect to ADHD symptoms, we observed differences across studies. In relation to the studies’ quality, eleven studies were rated “poor” and one was rated as “fair”. Conclusions: MBTs, such as yoga or mindfulness, could be positive strategies to mitigate ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents. However, further research with high-quality designs, with randomization, greater sample sizes, and more intensive supervised practice programs are needed.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6680862/

 

Improve Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Children with Yoga

Improve Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Children with Yoga

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

research reports that yoga may help relieve attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children.” – Elaine Gavalas

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is most commonly found in children, but for about half it persists into adulthood. It’s estimated that about 5% of the adult population has ADHD. Hence, this is a very large problem that can produce inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and emotional issues, and reduce quality of life. The most common treatment is drugs, like methylphenidate, Ritalin, which helps reducing symptoms in about 30% of the people with ADHD. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of the drugs appears to be markedly reduced after the first year. In addition, the drugs often have troublesome side effects, can be addictive, and can readily be abused. So, drugs, at present, do not appear to be a good solution, only affecting some, only for a short time, and with unwanted side effects.

 

There are indications that mindfulness training may be an effective treatment for ADHD. It makes sense that it should be, as the skills and abilities strengthened by mindfulness training are identical to those that are defective in ADHD,  attentionimpulse controlexecutive functionemotion control, and mood improvement. In addition, unlike drugs, it is a relatively safe intervention that has minimal troublesome side effects. Yoga is both an exercise and a mindfulness practice. This could be particularly attractive for kids with ADHD.

 

In today’s Research News article “Effects of Yoga on Attention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity in Preschool-Aged Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871620/), Cohen and colleagues recruited preschool children (3-5 years of age) who had at least 4 symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). They were randomly assigned to either 6 weeks of Yoga practice or a wait-list control condition. Yoga practice consisted of breathing exercises and poses and occurred twice a week at school in a group setting for 30 minutes and on other days at home guided by a DVD. Before and after the intervention and 6 weeks and 3 months later the parents and teachers completed measures of the children’s ADHD symptoms, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behaviors. The children were also directly measured for attention in a computer-based test and for heart rate variability.

 

They found that for children with high Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptom scores, yoga practice produced significant reductions in inattention and hyperactivity/inattention ratings by the parents. On the attention task, after the yoga intervention the children had significantly improved attention but also significantly higher distractibility. These findings were maintained at follow-up.

 

The results suggest that yoga practice is particularly beneficial for children who are high in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms improving their attentional ability and hyperactivity. These findings require further investigation to look closer at students with lower ADHD scores. But, they suggest that yoga practice may be beneficial in treating ADHD  in preschool children. Intervening this early in development may help to prevent ADHD development and/or prevent its transition into adulthood.

 

So, improve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with yoga.

 

Pairing a hyperactive child with a quiet, slow form of exercise may sound counterintuitive and even disastrous, but it turns out yoga can be incredibly helpful for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).” – Dennis Thompson

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Cohen, S., Harvey, D. J., Shields, R. H., Shields, G. S., Rashedi, R. N., Tancredi, D. J., … Schweitzer, J. B. (2018). Effects of Yoga on Attention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity in Preschool-Aged Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP, 39(3), 200–209. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000552

 

Abstract

Objective

Behavioral therapies are first line treatments for preschoolers with ADHD. Studies support yoga as an intervention for school age children with ADHD; this study evaluated the effects of yoga in preschoolers on parent and teacher rated attention/challenging behaviors; attentional control (KiTAP); and heart rate variability (HRV).

Methods

This randomized waitlist-controlled trial tested a 6-week yoga intervention in preschoolers with ≥ 4 ADHD symptoms on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Preschool Version. Group 1 (n=12) practiced yoga first; Group 2 (n=11) practiced yoga second. We collected data at four time points: baseline, T1 (6 wk), T2 (12 wk), follow-up (3 mo after T2).

Results

At baseline, there were no significant differences between Group 1 and 2 on any measure. At T1, Group 1 had faster reaction times on the KiTAP Go/No go task (p=.01, 95% CI: −371.1, −59.1, d=−1.7), fewer Distractibility errors of omission (p=.009, 95% CI: −14.2, −2.3, d=−1.5), but more commission errors (p=.02, 95% CI:1.4, 14.8, d=1.3) than Group 2. Children in Group 1 with more severe symptoms at baseline showed improvement at T1 not seen in Group 2 on parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire hyperactivity-inattention (β=−2.1, p=.04, 95% CI: −4.0, −0.1) and inattention on the ADHD Rating Scale (β=−4.4, p=.02, 95% CI: −7.9, −0.9). HRV measures did not differ between groups.

Conclusions

Yoga was associated with modest improvements on an objective measure of attention (KiTAP) and selective improvements on parent ratings. Yoga may be a promising treatment for ADHD symptoms in preschoolers.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871620/

 

Mindfulness and Its Relationships to Attention Deficit Traits are Inherited

Mindfulness and Its Relationships to Attention Deficit Traits are Inherited

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

heritability of trait mindfulness to be about 32% – meaning that while genetics has a substantial effect on one’s level of mindfulness, environmental factors are approximately twice as important in determining one’s level of mindfulness. They also found that some of the same genetic influences associated with depression and anxiety – are also associated with low levels of mindfulness.” – Matthew Brensilver

 

There are large differences between people in both their physical and psychological characteristics, including their levels of mindfulness, activity levels, anxiety, depression, and tendencies for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some of the differences are the result of environmental influences. But many people still differ considerably even though they have lived in similar environments and had similar experiences. In addition, many of these characteristics seem to be present right at birth. These facts support the notion that both the genes and the environment determine human characteristics.

 

Indeed, there is evidence that our level of mindfulness is in part inherited and transmitted with the genes but is also affected by the environment. It has also been shown that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are to some extent is inherited in addition to environmental origins. This taken together with the fact that mindfulness training is an effective treatment for ADHD raises the question of to what extent are the genes and environment underlying mindfulness also related to the genes and environment underlying ADHD.

 

In today’s Research News article “Genetic and environmental aetiologies of associations between dispositional mindfulness and ADHD traits: a population-based twin study.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6751144/), Siebelink and colleagues analyzed data from the UK Twins Early Development Study on dispositional mindfulness, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) traits of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, and life satisfaction. The genetic and environmental contributions to these variables and their interactions was assessed with twin method computations of the data obtained when the twins were 16 years of age.

 

They found moderate heritability (proportion of the variance accounted for by genetic similarity) for mindfulness (35%) and strong heritability for inattention (61%) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (65%). The environment shared by the twins only accounted 0% of the variance in mindfulness, 18% for inattention, and 22% for hyperactivity/impulsivity. The remainder of the variance was accounted for by unique (non-shared) environmental factors.

There were weak negative correlations between mindfulness and the ADHD traits of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity with the higher the levels of mindfulness the lower the levels of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. These correlations were found to have small degrees of heritability; 14% for inattention and 4% for hyperactivity/impulsivity.

 

These results suggest that the inheritance plays a significant role in determining the mindfulness and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) traits of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity and the familial (shared) environment a lesser role. In other words, genes and not how the twins were brought up primarily affected their mindfulness and ADHD traits. Interestingly, the small relationships between mindfulness and the ADHD traits were also to a small degree due to inheritance. So, not only the traits but also their relationship was affected by inheritance.

 

The genes appear to have ubiquitous influences on the individual’s nature including how mindful the individual is and whether the individual has tendencies toward Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and even the degree to which mindfulness is associated with lower levels of ADHD traits. This suggests that mindfulness training may have different degrees of benefit for ADHD symptoms depending upon the inheritance of the individual.

 

So, mindfulness and its relationships to attention deficit traits are inherited.

 

“genetic correlations between the lack of dispositional mindfulness and ADHD trait measures were modest and environmental correlations non-significant.” – Nienke Siebelink

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Siebelink, N. M., Asherson, P., Antonova, E., Bögels, S. M., Speckens, A. E., Buitelaar, J. K., & Greven, C. U. (2019). Genetic and environmental aetiologies of associations between dispositional mindfulness and ADHD traits: a population-based twin study. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 28(9), 1241–1251. doi:10.1007/s00787-019-01279-8

 

Abstract

To get additional insight into the phenotype of attentional problems, we examined to what extent genetic and environmental factors explain covariation between lack of dispositional mindfulness and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits in youth, and explored the incremental validity of these constructs in predicting life satisfaction. We used data from a UK population-representative sample of adolescent twins (N = 1092 pairs) on lack of dispositional mindfulness [Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)], ADHD traits [Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R): inattentive (INATT) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HYP/IMP) symptom dimensions] and life satisfaction (Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale). Twin model fitting analyses were conducted. Phenotypic correlations (rp) between MAAS and CPRS-R (INATT: rp = 0.18, HYP/IMP: rp = 0.13) were small, but significant and largely explained by shared genes for INATT (% rp INATT–MAAS due to genes: 93%, genetic correlation rA = 0.37) and HYP/IMP (% rp HYP/IMP–MAAS due to genes: 81%; genetic correlation rA = 0.21) with no significant contribution of environmental factors. MAAS, INATT and HYP/IMP significantly and independently predicted life satisfaction. Lack of dispositional mindfulness, assessed as self-reported perceived lapses of attention (MAAS), taps into an aspect of attentional functioning that is phenotypically and genetically distinct from parent-rated ADHD traits. The clinically relevant incremental validity of both scales implicates that MAAS could be used to explore the underlying mechanisms of an aspect of attentional functioning that uniquely affects life satisfaction and is not captured by DSM-based ADHD scales. Further future research could identify if lack of dispositional mindfulness and high ADHD traits can be targeted by different therapeutic approaches resulting in different effects on life satisfaction.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6751144/

 

Improve Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with Mindfulness

Improve Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Mindfulness meditation for people with ADHD? It may seem like a stretch, since difficulty with mindfulness is the very challenge for those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. And yet recent research shows that mindfulness training can be adapted for this condition and that it can improve concentration.” – Lynda McCollough

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is most commonly found in children, but for about half it persists into adulthood. It’s estimated that about 5% of the adult population has ADHD. Hence, this is a very large problem that can produce inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and emotional issues, and reduce quality of life. The most common treatment is drugs, like methylphenidate, Ritalin, which helps reducing symptoms in about 30% of the people with ADHD. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of the drugs appears to be markedly reduced after the first year. In addition, the drugs often have troublesome side effects, can be addictive, and can readily be abused. So, drugs, at present, do not appear to be a good solution, only affecting some, only for a short time, and with unwanted side effects.

 

There are indications that mindfulness training may be an effective treatment for ADHD. It makes sense that it should be, as the skills and abilities strengthened by mindfulness training are identical to those that are defective in ADHD,  attentionimpulse controlexecutive functionemotion control, and mood improvement. In addition, unlike drugs, it is a relatively safe intervention that has minimal troublesome side effects. Since mindfulness is so promising as a treatment, it is important to step back and summarize what has been learned in the scientific research of the effectiveness of mindfulness training for ADHD.

 

In today’s Research News article “A meta-analytic investigation of the impact of mindfulness-based interventions on ADHD symptoms.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6571280/), Xue and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the published research studies of the effectiveness of mindfulness training for the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). They included 11 controlled published research studies.

 

They report that the published research found that mindfulness training produced significant improvements in mindfulness and in the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms of  inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity with large effect sizes. The effect sizes were smaller, albeit still significant, when mindfulness training was compared to wait-list control groups as opposed to active control conditions.

 

These results are exciting and important as they suggest that mindfulness training is safe and effective for treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in both children and adults. It has been well established that mindfulness training improves attention and relaxation and reduces impulsivity in a variety of non-ADHD populations. This meta-analysis suggests that these same improvements occur in patients with ADHD. Training in paying attention non-judgmentally to the present moment appears to calm and improve the ability of ADHD patients to focus just as it does with people without ADHD.

 

So, improve Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with mindfulness

 

They discovered 78% of the study participants who practiced ADHD mindfulness reported reductions in ADHD symptoms, and 30% of the participants reported “clinically” reduced symptoms, which means they had a 30% or more reduction. They also found participants who did the mindfulness training did significantly better for “measures of attentional conflict” (when two or more things compete for your attention). And, as a bonus, participants also made improvements on measures of depression and anxiety.” – Casey Dixon

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Xue, J., Zhang, Y., & Huang, Y. (2019). A meta-analytic investigation of the impact of mindfulness-based interventions on ADHD symptoms. Medicine, 98(23), e15957. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000015957

 

Abstract

Background:

Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been reported to be efficacious in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the value of the control effect of MBIs on ADHD core symptoms remains controversial. To clarify the literature on the control effect of MBIs on the symptoms of ADHD and guide future researches, an effect-size analysis was conducted.

Methods:

A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wangfang Data databases was performed up to January 11, 2019. The overall effect size of MBIs on ADHD core symptoms (ie, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) was recorded by the metric of Hedges’ g with 95% confidence interval, Z-value, and P-value.

Results:

Eleven eligible studies featuring 682 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The overall results indicated that MBIs had large effects on inattention (Hedges’ g = −0.825) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (Hedges’ g = −0.676) relative to the control group. Results from subgroup analyses between self- and observer rating on ADHD symptoms revealed that the effect of MBIs both remained in a large range and self-rated ADHD core symptom had a greater impact on heterogeneity across the studies. Meta-regression found that the overall effect might be moderated by participant age group and control condition.

Conclusion:

The present meta-analysis suggested that MBIs had large effects in reducing ADHD core symptoms in comparison with the control group. Future researches are needed to assess follow-up effects of MBIs on ADHD core symptoms and explore the correlation between the individual level of mindfulness and reduction of ADHD symptoms.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6571280/

 

Improve Psychiatric Problems among Veterans with Mindfulness

Improve Psychiatric Problems among Veterans with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“mindfulness-based interventions show promise in helping soldiers reduce symptoms of PTS and depression as well as experience improvements in various psychosocial domains.” – Adam Clark

 

There are vast numbers of people worldwide who suffer with mental or physical illnesses. Mindfulness practices have been found to be helpful with coping with these illnesses and in many cases reducing the symptoms of the diseases. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) involves mindfulness training, containing sitting, walking and body scan meditations, and cognitive therapy that attempts to teach patients to distinguish between thoughts, emotions, physical sensations, and behaviors, and to recognize irrational thinking styles and how they affect behavior. MBCT has been found to be effective in treating a wide range of psychological issues. Military veterans are highly susceptible to psychiatric illnesses. So, it would make sense to investigate the effectiveness of MBCT for treating the psychiatric problems of military veterans

 

In today’s Research News article “Treatment Engagement and Outcomes of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Veterans with Psychiatric Disorders.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6748402/), Marchand and colleagues examined the medical records of veterans who had undergone Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) therapy for psychiatric illnesses. MBCT was provided in 8 weeks of once a week 2-hour sessions. Their conditions included psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression, substance abuse, and ADHD, and medical disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and chronic pain.

 

They found that only 67% of the veterans completed the Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)  program. The greater the number of emergency room visits and psychiatric admission prior to the study significantly predicted the likelihood of completion of the MBCT program. This suggests that veterans who have a history of seeking treatment are more likely to complete therapy. Importantly, they found that following the MBCT program there was a significant decrease in psychiatric admission with large effect size.

 

These are interesting findings that suggest that the Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)  program is effective in treating a variety of psychiatric conditions in military veterans. There appears to be a problem, however, with veterans who don’t have a history of seeking treatment completing the therapeutic program. This may signal the need for further study of what can be done to improve participation in this group. It is also possible that prior care with these particular veterans has not been effective and their dropping out of therapy may reflect the lack of success for them with the MBCT program. It is clear nonetheless that when the veterans complete the program it is highly effective in treating their conditions.

 

So, improve psychiatric problems among veterans with mindfulness.

 

We now have a lot of evidence that mindfulness meditation is helpful for a range of different conditions, including depression, anxiety, substance problems and chronic pain.” – Joseph Wielgosz

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Marchand, W. R., Yabko, B., Herrmann, T., Curtis, H., & Lackner, R. (2019). Treatment Engagement and Outcomes of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Veterans with Psychiatric Disorders. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.), 25(9), 902–909. doi:10.1089/acm.2018.0511

 

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate utilization and outcomes of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) provided to veterans with psychiatric disorders.

Design: Retrospective chart review.

Settings: Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC).

Subjects: Ninety-eight veterans with psychiatric illness who were enrolled in an MBCT class between May of 2012 and January of 2016. Subjects were predominately white (95%), male (81%), and >50 years old (74%). The most common psychiatric conditions were any mood disorder (82%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (54%).

Intervention: Eight-week MBCT class.

Outcome measures: Session attendance and pre- to postintervention changes in numbers of emergency department (ED) visits and psychiatric hospitalizations.

Results: The average number of sessions attended was 4.87 of 8 and only 16% were present for all sessions. Veteran demographic variables did not predict the number of MBCT sessions attended. However, both greater numbers of pre-MBCT ED visits (p = 0.004) and psychiatric admissions (p = 0.031) were associated with attending fewer sessions. Among patients who experienced at least one pre- or post-treatment psychiatric admission in the 2 years pre- or postintervention (N = 26, 27%), there was a significant reduction in psychiatric admissions from pre to post (p = 0.002). There was no significant change in ED visits (p = 0.535).

Conclusions: MBCT may be challenging to implement for veterans with psychiatric illness in, at least some, outpatient VAMC settings due to a high attrition rate. Possible mediation approaches include development of methods to screen for high dropout risk and/or development of shorter mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) and/or coupling MBIs with pleasurable activities. The finding of a significant decrease in psychiatric hospitalizations from pre- to post-MBCT suggests that prospective studies are warranted utilizing MBCT for veterans at high risk for psychiatric hospitalization.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6748402/

 

Improve Psychopathology with Meditation

Improve Psychopathology with Meditation

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“The research is strong for mindfulness’ positive impact in certain areas of mental health, including stress reduction, emotion and attention regulation, reduced rumination, for reducing mild to moderate depression and anxiety, and preventing depressive relapse.” – Kelle Walsh

 

There are vast numbers of people who suffer with mental illnesses; psychopathology. In the United states it has been estimated that in any given year 1 in 5 people will experience a mental illness. Many are treated with drugs. But drug treatment can produce unwanted side effects, don’t work for many patients, and often can lose effectiveness over time. Mindfulness practices provide a safe alternative treatment. They have been found to be helpful with coping with these illnesses and in many cases reducing the symptoms of the diseases. Hence, it appears that mindfulness practices are safe and effective treatments for a variety of psychiatric conditions including anxietydepressionpsychosesaddictions, etc.. Since there has accumulated a large amount of research, it makes sense to step back and summarize what has been discovered.

 

In today’s Research News article “Mindfulness Meditation and Psychopathology.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6597263/), Wielgosz and colleagues review and summarize the published research studies investigating the efficacy of mindfulness meditation practices for the treatment of a variety of psychopathologies.

 

They report that mindfulness meditation produces significant improvements in depression and in anxiety disorders in comparison to inactive and active control conditions. Efficacy is equivalent to that of other evidence-based treatments. The research suggests that meditation reduces depression by decreasing rumination and anxiety by reducing repetitive negative thinking. Hence, meditation training is an excellent safe and effective treatment for these prevalent mental illnesses.

 

They also report that mindfulness meditation produces significant improvements in chronic pain intensity and unpleasantness in comparison to inactive but not active control conditions. Efficacy is equivalent to that of other evidence-based treatments. This is true for chronic low back pain fibromyalgia, migraine, and chronic pelvic pain. Meditation also appears to improve the quality of life of chronic pain patients. The research suggests that meditation reduces chronic pain by decreasing negative emotional reactivity. Such reactivity appears to intensify pain and meditation reduces this reactivity and thereby reduces pain.

 

They report that mindfulness meditation produces significant improvements in substance abuse disorders in comparison to inactive and active control conditions and even in comparison to other evidence-based treatments. It appears to reduce substance use frequency, use-related problems, and craving. This is important as addictions are very difficult to treat and frequently relapse.

 

There is evidence that mindfulness meditation is effective in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) both in children and adults and also post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). But there are currently no comparisons to the effects of other active or evidence-based treatments. It will be important to have randomized controlled trials with active controls to better assess the efficacy of meditation for the treatment of ADHD and PTSD.

 

There is emerging evidence that mindfulness meditation may be effective for eating disorders, and major mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder, major depression, and psychosis. But there is a need for more, better controlled research.

 

Hence, this comprehensive review suggests that mindfulness meditation is a useful treatment for a variety of types of psychopathology. It is amazing that such a simple practice as meditation can have such wide-ranging benefits for such diverse mental illnesses. Meditation appears to act indirectly by strengthening cognitive, emotional, and stress related process that in turn have beneficial effects on the psychopathologies. Hence, it is clear that mindfulness meditation is a safe and effective treatment for psychopathologies that can be used alone or in combination with other treatments.

 

So, improve psychopathology with meditation.

 

“When they’re depressed, people are locked in the past. They’re ruminating about something that happened that they can’t let go of. When they’re anxious, they’re ruminating about the future — it’s that anticipation of what they can’t control. In contrast, when we are mindful, we are focused on the here and now. Mindfulness trains individuals to turn their attention to what is happening in the present moment.” – Carolyn Gregoire

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Wielgosz, J., Goldberg, S. B., Kral, T., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2019). Mindfulness Meditation and Psychopathology. Annual review of clinical psychology, 15, 285–316. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-093423

 

Abstract

Mindfulness meditation is increasingly incorporated into mental health interventions, and theoretical concepts associated with it have influenced basic research on psychopathology. Here, we review the current understanding of mindfulness meditation through the lens of clinical neuroscience, outlining the core capacities targeted by mindfulness meditation and mapping them onto cognitive and affective constructs of the Research Domain Criteria matrix proposed by the National Institute of Mental Health. We review efficacious applications of mindfulness meditation to specific domains of psychopathology including depression, anxiety, chronic pain, and substance abuse, as well as emerging efforts related to attention disorders, traumatic stress, dysregulated eating, and serious mental illness. Priorities for future research include pinpointing mechanisms, refining methodology, and improving implementation. Mindfulness meditation is a promising basis for interventions, with particular potential relevance to psychiatric comorbidity. The successes and challenges of mindfulness meditation research are instructive for broader interactions between contemplative traditions and clinical psychological science.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6597263/

Improve Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adults with Mindfulness

Improve Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adults with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Mindful awareness isn’t about staying with the breath, but about returning to the breath. That’s what enhances your ability to focus. And this emphasis on re-shifting your attention, of outwitting the mind’s natural tendency to wander, is what makes this technique especially helpful to someone who has ADHD.” – Carl Sherman

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is most commonly found in children, but for about half it persists into adulthood. It’s estimated that about 5% of the adult population has ADHD. Hence, this is a very large problem that can produce inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and emotional issues, and reduce quality of life. The most common treatment is drugs, like methylphenidate, Ritalin, which helps reducing symptoms in about 30% of the people with ADHD. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of the drugs appears to be markedly reduced after the first year. In addition, the drugs often have troublesome side effects, can be addictive, and can readily be abused. So, drugs, at present, do not appear to be a good solution, only affecting some, only for a short time, and with unwanted side effects.

 

There are indications that mindfulness training may be an effective treatment for ADHD. It makes sense that it should be, as the skills and abilities strengthened by mindfulness training are identical to those that are defective in ADHD,  attentionimpulse controlexecutive functionemotion control, and mood improvement. In addition, unlike drugs, it is a relatively safe intervention that has minimal troublesome side effects. Since mindfulness is so promising as a treatment, it is important to step back and summarize what has been learned in the scientific research of the effectiveness of mindfulness training for ADHD. Most of the research has been with children. But ADHD often persists into adulthood. So, it is important to take a look at the published research on the effectiveness of mindfulness training for ADHD in adults.

 

In today’s Research News article “Behavioral and Cognitive Impacts of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6476147/), Poissant and colleagues review and summarize the published research studies on the effectiveness of Mindfulness based interventions on the symptoms of ADHD in adults.

 

They found 13 published studies with a total of 753 participants. All 13 studies reported significant improvements in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms following mindfulness training and the improvements were maintained six months after the end of training. The participants had significant improvements in higher level thinking (cognitive function) and emotion regulation.

 

They also report that the quality of the research designs used were fairly weak and hence caution must be exercised in reaching definitive conclusions. Better controlled research studies are needed. Nevertheless the published research studies consistently found that mindfulness-based interventions produced improvements in the symptoms of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

 

So, improve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults with mindfulness.

 

“mindfulness practice can help us pay attention better, resist distractions, be less impulsive, remember what we are doing in the moment, and regulate our own emotions, it is helpful whether we have ADHD or not. But it holds special interest for those with ADHD.” – Mindfully ADD

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Poissant, H., Mendrek, A., Talbot, N., Khoury, B., & Nolan, J. (2019). Behavioral and Cognitive Impacts of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review. Behavioural neurology, 2019, 5682050. doi:10.1155/2019/5682050

 

Abstract

Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are becoming increasingly popular as treatments for physical and psychological problems. Recently, several studies have suggested that MBIs may also be effective in reducing symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most studies have examined the effectiveness in children, but there are now a sufficient number of individual treatment trials to consider a systematic review in adults. Majority of existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses only consider ADHD symptoms as an outcome, and most of them do not fully report potential biases of included studies, thus limiting considerably their conclusions. This is an important facet because some studies could be found ineligible to be included in future analysis due to their low quality. In this systematic review, we followed the PRISMA/PICO criteria and we thoroughly assessed the risks of bias for each of the selected studies according to Cochrane guidelines. We searched the available literature concerning MBIs in adult participants with ADHD using PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and ERIC databases. In total, 13 studies conducted with 753 adults (mean age of 35.1 years) were identified as eligible. Potential moderators such as participants’ age, ADHD subtypes, medication status, comorbidity, intervention length, mindfulness techniques, homework amount, and training of therapists were carefully described. Aside from measuring the symptoms of ADHD, outcome measures were categorized into executive/cognitive functioning, emotional disturbances, quality of life, mindfulness, and grade point average at school. According to presented descriptive results, all the studies (100%) showed improvement of ADHD symptoms. In addition, mindfulness meditation training improves some aspects of executive function and emotion dysregulation. Although these are promising findings to support treatment efficacy of MBIs for ADHD, various biases such as absence of randomization and lack of a control group may affect the actual clinical value and implications of the studies. Moreover, the relatively low quality of selection and performance criteria in several studies, as well as relatively high attrition bias across studies, call for caution before considering conducting further analysis.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6476147/

 

Improve Attention in Children and Adults with ADHD with Mindfulness

Improve Attention in Children and Adults with ADHD with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Unlike many tools for ADHD, mindfulness develops the individual’s inner skills. It improves your ability to control your attention by helping to strengthen your ability to self-observe, to train attention, and to develop different relationships to experiences that are stressful. In other words, it teaches you to pay attention to paying attention, and can also make people more aware of their emotional state, so they won’t react impulsively. That’s often a real problem for people with ADHD.” – Carl Sherman

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is most commonly found in children, but for about half it persists into adulthood. It’s estimated that about 5% of the adult population has ADHD. Hence, this is a very large problem that can produce inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and emotional issues, and reduce quality of life. The most common treatment is drugs, like methylphenidate, Ritalin, which helps reducing symptoms in about 30% of the people with ADHD. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of the drugs appears to be markedly reduced after the first year. In addition, the drugs often have troublesome side effects, can be addictive, and can readily be abused. So, drugs, at present, do not appear to be a good solution, only affecting some, only for a short time, and with unwanted side effects.

 

There are indications that mindfulness training may be an effective treatment for ADHD. It makes sense that it should be, as the skills and abilities strengthened by mindfulness training are identical to those that are defective in ADHD,  attentionimpulse controlexecutive functionemotion control, and mood improvement. In addition, unlike drugs, it is a relatively safe intervention that has minimal troublesome side effects. Since mindfulness is so promising as a treatment, it is important to step back and summarize what has been learned in the scientific research of the effectiveness of mindfulness training for ADHD.

 

In today’s Research News article “The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Attention on Individuals with ADHD: A Systematic Review.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6092011/ ), Lee and colleagues review and summarize the published research studies on the effectiveness of mindfulness training for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. They found 9 articles, 5 with adults, 1 with adults and adolescents, 2 with adolescents, and 1 with children.

 

They report that the published studies on adults with ADHD found that mindfulness training produced significant improvements in attention. With both adolescents and children both teachers and parents reported that after mindfulness training there were significant improvements in attention. Unfortunately, many of these studies used weak experimental designs. Hence, there is a need to perform large scale randomized controlled studies with active controls before firm conclusions can be reached.

 

Mindfulness training, however, focuses on attention, with training to maintain attention in the present moment on a target, such as the breath or feelings from the body. It has been repeatedly shown to improve attention in a wide range of healthy and ill individuals of varying ages. So, it would seem reasonable to predict that mindfulness training would also improve attention in people with ADHD.

 

So, improve attention in children and adults with ADHD with mindfulness training.

 

“ADHD is characterized by difficulties with executive function, not just attention, and mindfulness is an avenue to developing interrelated cognitive skills, many related to executive function, not just attention.” – Mark Bertin

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Lee, C., Ma, M. T., Ho, H. Y., Tsang, K. K., Zheng, Y. Y., & Wu, Z. Y. (2017). The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Attention on Individuals with ADHD: A Systematic Review. Hong Kong journal of occupational therapy : HKJOT, 30(1), 33-41.

 

Abstract

Background/Objective

Mindfulness-based intervention has received more clinical interest and empirical support for individuals with ADHD especially to improve attention. However, no systematic review has been done to analyze and compare the effectiveness of mindfulness-based intervention on individuals with ADHD in different age groups. This review examined its effectiveness for individuals (children, adolescents and adults) with ADHD to improve attention.

Methods

In 7 databases, totally of 152 studies were identified; 9 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were reviewed. Five of the studies recruited adults as the participants, two recruited adolescents as the participants, one recruited both adults and adolescents as the participants and one recruited children as the participants.

Results

It was found that mindfulness-based intervention was comparatively more popularly used in adults with ADHD to improve attention, and the improvement was significant.

Conclusion

It is still unclear whether mindfulness-based intervention is effective for children and adolescence with ADHD due to limited studies available and the limitations of the study design in the reviewed studies. Therefore, more research in the future is required to answer the question.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6092011/

 

Improve Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with Mindfulness

Improve Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Unlike many tools for ADHD, mindfulness develops the individual’s inner skills. It improves your ability to control your attention by helping to strengthen your ability to self-observe, to train attention, and to develop different relationships to experiences that are stressful. In other words, it teaches you to pay attention to paying attention, and can also make people more aware of their emotional state, so they won’t react impulsively. That’s often a real problem for people with ADHD.” – Carl Sherman

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is most commonly found in children, but for about half it persists into adulthood. It’s estimated that about 5% of the adult population has ADHD. Hence, this is a very large problem that can produce inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and emotional issues, and reduce quality of life. The most common treatment is drugs, like methylphenidate, Ritalin, which helps reducing symptoms in about 30% of the people with ADHD. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of the drugs appears to be markedly reduced after the first year. In addition, the drugs often have troublesome side effects, including nervousness agitation, anxiety, irritability, sleep and appetite problems, head and stomach aches, nausea, dizziness, and heart palpitations. If that’s not enough they can be addictive and can readily be abused. So, drugs, at present, do not appear to be a good solution, only affecting some, only for a short time, and with unwanted side effects.

 

There are indications that mindfulness training may be an effective treatment for ADHD. It makes sense that it should be, as the skills and abilities strengthened by mindfulness training are identical to those that are defective in ADHD,  attentionimpulse controlexecutive functionemotion control, and mood improvement. In addition, unlike drugs, it is a relatively safe intervention that has minimal troublesome side effects. Since mindfulness is so promising as a treatment, it is important to further investigate the role of mindfulness in ADHD and its treatment.

 

In today’s Research News article “Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Adjunct Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Adults.” See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5526699/, Aadil and colleagues review and summarize the published research literature of the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults. MBCT involves both mindfulness training, containing sitting and walking meditation and body scan, and cognitive therapy to alter how the patient relates to the thought processes that often underlie and exacerbate psychological symptoms.

 

They identified 16 published trials and every one of them reported small but significant reductions in symptoms of ADHD. The improvements included significant reductions in ADHD severity, depression and emotional symptoms and increases in mindfulness, attentional ability, and quality of life. These improvements occurred even in patients who did not respond to drug treatment. Hence, MBCT is a safe and effective treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These are important and very impressive results. Mindfulness training is clearly a safe and effective treatment that may be used either as a supplement or instead of drug treatment and can help to alleviate the symptoms.

 

So, Improve Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with Mindfulness.

 

“78% of participants who practiced mindful awareness reported reduction in their ADHD symptoms.” – Lidia Zylowska

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Aadil, M., Cosme, R. M., & Chernaik, J. (2017). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Adjunct Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Adults: A Literature Review. Cureus, 9(5), e1269. http://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.1269

 

Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurological disorder that often continues into adult age. Stimulants medication are the mainstay of treatment, however, in the recent years, there has been a lot of studies conducted to understand the effectiveness and feasibility of mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults. In this article, we have reviewed 17 articles to look for the beneficial effects of such therapy in adults. Overall, we found that there is a clear beneficial effect of such therapies, especially when used in adjunct with stimulant medication and may increase overall compliance. For better understanding, we suggest that large, well-designed studies should be conducted with robust strategies, allowing more comparison studies with the better analytical outcome.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5526699/