Improve Type II Diabetes with Yoga

Improve Type II Diabetes with Yoga

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Regular yoga practice can help reduce the level of sugar in the blood, along with lowering blood pressure, keeping a weight check, reducing the symptoms and slowing the rate of progression of diabetes, as well as lessening the severity of further complications.” – The Art of Living

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States and nearly 600 million people worldwide have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Type II Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world. A leading cause of this is a sedentary life style. Unlike Type I Diabetes, Type II does not require insulin injections. Instead, the treatment and prevention of Type 2 Diabetes focuses on diet, exercise, and weight control. Recently, mindfulness practices have been shown to be helpful in managing diabetes. A mindfulness practice that combines mindfulness with exercise is yoga and it has been shown to be helpful in the treatment of Type II Diabetes.

 

In today’s Research News article “Yoga as a therapeutic intervention for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: http://www.ijoy.org.in/article.asp?issn=0973-6131;year=2018;volume=11;issue=2;spage=129;epage=138;aulast=Mondal ), Mondal and colleagues recruited older sedentary women (aged 55-70 years) with Type 2 Diabetes and randomly assigned them to either a yoga practice or a wait-list control group. Yoga practice occurred for 35-55 minutes, 3 days per week for 12 weeks and included postures, breathing exercises, meditation, and chanting. The women were measured before, mid-point, and after training for body size, fasting and after meal plasma glucose, total cholesterol, TG, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein.

 

They found that after 6 and 12 weeks of yoga practice there were significant improvements in the blood glucose and blood fat markers of Type 2 Diabetes including reductions in blood glucose, total blood fat, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein, and increases in high-density lipoprotein. Hence the group that practiced yoga showed significant improvements in these markers of Type II Diabetes. Although the women were not followed beyond the time frame of the study, these improvements would predict better overall health and longevity.

 

These are interesting results that are similar to previous reports that is yoga practice is helpful in the treatment of Type II Diabetes. They extend these findings to older sedentary women. Because the control condition did not contain any activities, it cannot be concluded that yoga practice per se was necessary for the improvements. It is possible that any form of exercise would have produced similar results in this sedentary group. Future research needs to include groups performing other forms of exercise to compare to yoga practice. But it is clear that yoga practice is beneficial for the health of these older women with Type II Diabetes

 

So, improve Type II Diabetes with yoga.

 

“For those wondering how to prevent diabetes or even relieve the condition, a number of studies have revealed that yoga can reduce contributing factors and help patients cope with diabetic symptoms. Although regular exercise can help, yoga for diabetes provides unique benefits that can effectively restore the body to a state of natural health and proper function.” – Yoga U

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Mondal S, Kundu B, Saha S. Yoga as a therapeutic intervention for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Yoga 2018;11:129-38

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of 12 weeks yogic intervention on blood sugar and lipid profile in elder women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Subjects and Methods: Twenty elderly (age range 55–70 years) T2DM women were divided into two groups, namely, yogic intervention group (YIG: n = 10, age 64.70 ± 4.03, body mass index [BMI] 24.26 ± 3.40) and control group (CG: n = 10, age 64.40 ± 4.79, BMI 24.28 ± 2.36). YIG underwent yoga practice (Asanas, Kriyas, Pranayamas) for 12 weeks (3 sessions/week), while the CG continued their usual routine activities. Standing height, body weight, BMI, blood sugar, and lipid profile were measured before commencement and after 6 and 12 weeks of yogic intervention in both groups. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in fasting plasma glucose, postprandial blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein, with a significant (P < 0.01) increase in high-density lipoprotein level from its initial value in YIG, while showing insignificant result in CG. Conclusion: It can be said that yogic intervention may have the beneficial effects on blood sugar and lipid profile in elderly women with T2DM.

http://www.ijoy.org.in/article.asp?issn=0973-6131;year=2018;volume=11;issue=2;spage=129;epage=138;aulast=Mondal

 

Improve Adult Onset Diabetes with Qigong

Improve Adult Onset Diabetes with Qigong

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“After 12 weeks, the qigong patients had lowered their fasting blood glucose and their levels of self-reported stress and improved their insulin resistance. The gentle exercise group also brought down blood glucose levels, though somewhat less…and lowered stress.” – BottomLine

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Type 2 Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world. Qigong and Tai Chi have been practiced for thousands of years with benefits for health and longevityQigong and Tai Chi trainings are designed to enhance function and regulate the activities of the body through controlled breathing, mindful concentration, and gentle movements. Only recently though have the effects of these practices been scrutinized with empirical research. This research has found that they are effective for an array of physical and psychological issues.

 

Diet and exercise are prescribed to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Qigong and Tai Chi are gentle exercises that are potentially useful in treating Type 2 Diabetes. In today’s Research News article “The Effects of Qigong on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5817377/ ), Meng and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the 21 published research studies regarding the effectiveness of Qigong practice in the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

 

The summary of the research indicates that Qigong practice improves fasting glucose levels in Type 2 Diabetes patients when compared to a no-exercise condition, but the improvement is not significantly different than that produced by other exercise programs. Importantly, Qigong practice was found to improve Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and two-hour postprandial (after eating) blood glucose levels both in comparison to no-exercise and other exercise groups. Hence, the published research suggests that Qigong practice is superior to other exercises in improving the symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes.

 

These are encouraging findings. Qigong practice appears to be an almost ideal exercise for adult-onset diabetes (Type 2). It not only produces better results than other exercises but it is also not strenuous, involving slow gentle movements, is safe, having no appreciable side effects, it is appropriate for all ages including the elderly and for individuals with illnesses that limit their activities or range of motion, is inexpensive to administer, can be performed in groups or alone, at home or in a facility or even public park, and can be quickly learned. In addition, it can be practiced in social groups without professional supervision. This can make it fun, improving the likelihood of long-term engagement in the practice.

 

So, improve adult onset diabetes with Qigong.

 

“Many people, however, are unable to keep up with their regular exercise because they either don’t enjoy it, or have a problem finding time to exercise. Tai chi offers a major advantage: It’s enjoyable, and to many, it’s almost addictive. . . . You can practice Tai Chi almost anywhere. Stress stands in the way of controlling diabetes. Since tai chi encourages mental relaxation and reduces stress, it follows that Tai Chi can improve the control of diabetes.” – Paul Lam

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Meng, D., Chunyan, W., Xiaosheng, D., & Xiangren, Y. (2018). The Effects of Qigong on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM, 2018, 8182938. http://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8182938

 

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Qigong on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) using the systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods

All prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials published in English or Chinese and involving the use of Qigong by patients with DM were searched in 7 electronic databases from their respective inception to June 2016. The meta-analysis was conducted using the Revman 5.2. The quality of the included trials was assessed using the Jadad rating scale. Two researchers independently completed the inclusion, data extraction, and quality assessment.

Results

Twenty-one trials with 1326 patients met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The meta-analysis demonstrated that, compared with no exercise, the Qigong had significant effects on fasting blood glucose (MD = −0.99, 95% CI (−1.23, 0.75), P < 0.0001), HbA1c (MD = −0.84, 95% CI (−1.02, −0.65), P < 0.0001), and postprandial blood glucose (MD = −1.55, 95% CI (−2.19, −0.91), P < 0.00001).

Conclusion

The Qigong training can improve the blood glucose status of the type 2 DM patients and has positive effects on the management of type 2 DM. However, future research with better quality still needs to be conducted to address the effects of Qigong on type 2 DM.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5817377/

 

Improve Sleep with Diabetes with Yoga

Improve Sleep with Diabetes with Yoga

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“yoga stimulates the organs which in turn improves metabolic activities. This means that the chemical transformations within a cell are carried out more efficiently. This makes it a highly beneficial exercise for those suffering from diabetes” – Aruna Rathod Panvell

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States and nearly 600 million people worldwide have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Type II Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world. A leading cause of this is a sedentary life style. Unlike Type I Diabetes, Type II does not require insulin injections. Instead, the treatment and prevention of Type 2 Diabetes focuses on diet, exercise, and weight control. Recently, mindfulness practices have been shown to be helpful in managing diabetes. A mindfulness practice that combines mindfulness with exercise is yoga and it has been shown to be helpful in the treatment of Type II Diabetes.

 

In today’s Research News article “Effect of yoga and aerobics exercise on sleep quality in women with Type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5612039/ ), Ebrahimi and colleagues recruited adult women with diabetes and randomly assigned them to a 12-week program of yoga practice, running on a treadmill, or a control condition. Yoga consisted of postures, breathing exercises and relaxation and was practiced for 90 minutes three times per week while running on a treadmill was practiced for 30 minutes 3 times per week. They were measured before, at 6 weeks, and after training for sleep quality.

 

They found that yoga but not either running or the control condition produced a significant improvement in sleep quality at 6-weeks and at the end of training. The improvements included decreased time to fall asleep, longer duration of sleep, greater sleep efficiency, fewer sleep medications and sleep disturbances, and better daytime function. Hence, participation in yoga practice was found to markedly improve sleep in diabetic women.

 

It is suspected, but nor established, that the improvements in sleep improve the quality of life with diabetes. The fact that aerobic exercise did not produce similar improvements suggests that it was the mindfulness component and not the exercise component of yoga practice that was responsible for the improvements. It is known that mindfulness practices improve sleep and diabetes. It remains for future research to establish the causal connections between the two effects of mindfulness.

 

So, improve sleep with diabetes with yoga.

 

“Regular practice of yoga does reduce blood sugar levels, the blood pressure, weight, the rate of progression to the complications, and the severity of the complications as well. The symptoms are also reduced to a great extent, so are number of diabetes related hospital admissions.”Sujit Chandratreya

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Ebrahimi, M., Guilan-Nejad, T. N., & Pordanjani, A. F. (2017). Effect of yoga and aerobics exercise on sleep quality in women with Type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Sleep Science, 10(2), 68–72. http://doi.org/10.5935/1984-0063.20170012

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was investigating the effect of 12 weeks of yoga and aerobic exercise (running on a treadmill) on the sleep quality in women with Type 2 diabetes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

39 diabetic women were selected from Semnan city with the mean age of 46.85±3.35 years, weight of 69.79±17.18 kg, height of 155.03±5.00, BMI of 29.64±5.00 kg/m2 who had a background of diabetes for 6.46±2.69 years. They were then randomly divided into yoga exercise (n=15), aerobic exercise (n=13), and control group (n=11). The exercise program was performed for 12 weeks, three sessions per each week. In order to measure the sleep quality, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used. The data were analyzed by non-parametric wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis Test at significance level of p<0.05.

RESULTS

Overall score of sleep quality improved after six (p=0.001) and 12 (p=0.001) weeks of yoga exercise. Also, significant effect was observed after 6 weeks of aerobic exercise (p=0.039). However, the positive effect was diminished to under significant levels after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise (p=0.154). Kruskal-Wallis Test showed significant differences between yoga and aerobic groups after 12 weeks of exercise (p=0.002). No significant differences were observed in control groups in all situation.

CONCLUSIONS

It can be concluded that yoga exercise is more effective in improving the sleep quality in comparison with the same course of aerobic exercise in women suffering from diabetes Type 2. Thus, yoga exercise can be suggested to these patients.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5612039/

Improve Diabetes and Diabetes Risk with Yoga

Improve Diabetes and Diabetes Risk with Yoga

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“It is well known that regular practice of yoga can help reduce levels of stress, enhance mobility, lower blood pressure and improve overall wellbeing. It is these benefits that many health experts believe can improve diabetes management and protect against other related medical conditions such as heart disease.” – Diabetes UK

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States and nearly 600 million people worldwide have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Type II Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world. A leading cause of this is a sedentary life style. Unlike Type I Diabetes, Type II does not require insulin injections. Instead, the treatment and prevention of Type 2 Diabetes focuses on diet, exercise, and weight control. Recently, mindfulness practices have been shown to be helpful in managing diabetes. A mindfulness practice that combines mindfulness with exercise is yoga and it has been shown to be helpful in the treatment of Type II Diabetes.

 

In today’s Research News article “Effect of 12 Weeks of Yoga Therapy on Quality of Life and Indian Diabetes Risk Score in Normotensive Indian Young Adult Prediabetics and Diabetics: Randomized Control Trial.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5713721/ ), Keerthi and colleagues recruited adult participants with diabetes, pre-diabetes, and healthy non-diabetics. All participants continued their normal therapy throughout the study while half the diabetics and pre-diabetics were randomly assigned to receive either 12 weeks of additional walking or yoga therapy for 45 minutes, three time per week. All participants were measured before and after the 12-week treatment period for fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance, body size, blood pressure, diabetes risk, and quality of life.

 

They found that both the diabetic and pre-diabetic groups showed significant reductions after yoga therapy training in fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance, and diabetes risk, and significant increases in quality of life. Hence, 12 weeks of yoga therapy improved both the metabolic and psychological state of both pre-diabetic and overtly diabetic individuals. These findings were in comparison to normal healthy participants and to pre-diabetic and diabetic groups who walked for a comparable period of time to the yoga therapy. This makes it unlikely that simply exercise was responsible for the observed group differences. Rather, the improvements were specifically due to participation in yoga. Future research needs to follow up to determine if the improvements are lasting.

 

These are encouraging results. Diabetes is epidemic worldwide and safe and effective additional treatments are greatly needed. The present study demonstrates that yoga therapy can help to prevent diabetes by improving the physical and mental states of individuals at high risk for diabetes. They also show that yoga practice can produce improvements in addition to standard therapy in overtly diabetic individuals. This suggests that yoga practice should be included in the standard treatment regimens for pre-diabetic and diabetic adults.

 

So, improve diabetes and diabetes risk with yoga.

 

“For those looking for how to prevent diabetes or gain relief from the disease, adopting a healthy lifestyle that incorporates yoga postures for diabetes can offer patients with the condition of its pre-indicators a new lease on life.” – Yoga U

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Keerthi, G. S., Pal, P., Pal, G. K., Sahoo, J. P., Sridhar, M. G., & Balachander, J. (2017). Effect of 12 Weeks of Yoga Therapy on Quality of Life and Indian Diabetes Risk Score in Normotensive Indian Young Adult Prediabetics and Diabetics: Randomized Control Trial. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR, 11(9), CC10–CC14. http://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/29307.10633

 

Abstract

Introduction

India has become the epicentre for diabetes, a stress-related disorder affecting the working skills and day-to-day lifestyle management of younger population. Most of the studies have reported the effect of yoga on improving Quality of Life (QoL) in diabetic patients with other comorbidities. Till date, no randomized control trial reports are available to show the effect of yoga therapy on QoL and Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) in normotensive prediabetic and diabetic young individuals.

Aim

To determine the effect of 12 weeks of yoga therapy on QoL and IDRS among normotensive prediabetic and diabetic young Indian adults.

Materials and Methods

A randomized control trial was conducted in Endocrinology Outpatient Department (OPD). Normotensive participants (n=310) aged 18-45 years were divided into healthy controls (n=62), prediabetics (n=124) and diabetics (n=124). Study group subjects were randomly assigned to Group II (n=62, prediabetes-standard treatment), Group III (n=62, prediabetes-standard treatment + yoga therapy), Group IV (n=62, diabetes-standard treatment) and Group V (n=62, diabetes-standard treatment + yoga therapy). Flanagan QoL scale, IDRS questionnaire, Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and insulin were assessed pre and post 12 weeks of intervention. Statistical analysis was done using Student’s paired t-test and one-way ANOVA.

Results

Pre-post intervention analysis showed significant improvement in QoL scale with p<0.01 in Group II and Group IV; p<0.001 in Group III and Group V respectively. There was significant reduction in IDRS in Group II (p<0.05); p<0.001 in Group III, Group IV and Group V respectively. Significant difference (p<0.001) in QoL scale and IDRS were found when study groups with standard treatment along with yoga therapy were compared to standard treatment alone.

Conclusion

Yoga therapy along with standard treatment for 12 weeks improved QoL and attenuated the diabetes risk among Indian prediabetics and diabetics compared to standard treatment alone.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5713721/

Improve Type 2 Diabetes with Qigong Practice

Improve Type 2 Diabetes with Qigong Practice

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“In addition to the importance of moderate physical activity, the relaxation element of Tai Chi may help to reduce stress levels, preventing the release of adrenalin which can lead to insulin resistance and high blood glucose levels.”  – Cathy Moulton

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Type 2 Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world. Qigong and Tai Chi have been practiced for thousands of years with benefits for health and longevityQigong and Tai Chi trainings are designed to enhance function and regulate the activities of the body through controlled breathing, mindful concentration, and gentle movements. Only recently though have the effects of these practices been scrutinized with empirical research. This research has found that they are effective for an array of physical and psychological issues.

 

Diet and exercise are prescribed to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Qigong and Tai Chi are gentle exercises that may be acceptable to the generally exercise averse obese. So, they may be useful in treating Type 2 Diabetes. In today’s Research News article “Qigong Exercises for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622394/), Putiri and colleagues review and summarize the published research literature on the application of Qigong practice for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

 

They report that the published research literature finds that Qigong practice produces significant improvements in blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, weight, BMI and insulin resistance in patients with Type 2 Diabetes. It is known that exercise and weight reduction improves Type 2 Diabetes. In addition, stress tends to exacerbate the disorder. So, Putiri and colleagues speculate that the benefits of Qigong for Type 2 Diabetes are due to the aerobic exercise, weight loss, and stress reduction provided by the practice.

 

These are exciting findings. Qigong is a gentle practice, completely safe, can be used by anyone, including the elderly and sickly, is inexpensive to administer, is convenient as it can be performed in groups or alone, at home or in a facility or even public park, and can be quickly learned. In addition, it can also be practiced in social groups without professional supervision. This can make it fun, improving the likelihood of long-term engagement in the practice. This suggests that Qigong practice may be an ideal alternative treatment for Type 2 Diabetes.

 

So, improve Type 2 Diabetes with qigong practice.

 

“Qigong is brilliant but it is not a miracle worker. It is merely a tool to maintaining good health and to prevent and improve your health; HOWEVER you may need to improve other aspects of your life such as increasing exercise (where Qigong can help) and changing the diet (removing toxic additives and sugar / processed products).” – Udemy

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Putiri, A. L., Close, J. R., Lilly, H. R., Guillaume, N., & Sun, G.-C. (2017). Qigong Exercises for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Medicines, 4(3), 59. http://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4030059

 

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this article is to clarify and define medical qigong and to identify an appropriate study design and methodology for a large-scale study looking at the effects of qigong in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), specifically subject enrollment criteria, selection of the control group and study duration. Methods: A comprehensive literature review of English databases was used to locate articles from 1980–May 2017 involving qigong and T2DM. Control groups, subject criteria and the results of major diabetic markers were reviewed and compared within each study. Definitions of qigong and its differentiation from physical exercise were also considered. Results: After a thorough review, it was found that qigong shows positive effects on T2DM; however, there were inconsistencies in control groups, research subjects and diabetic markers analyzed. It was also discovered that there is a large variation in styles and definitions of qigong. Conclusions: Qigong exercise has shown promising results in clinical experience and in randomized, controlled pilot studies for affecting aspects of T2DM including blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, weight, BMI and insulin resistance. Due to the inconsistencies in study design and methods and the lack of large-scale studies, further well-designed randomized control trials (RCT) are needed to evaluate the ‘vital energy’ or qi aspect of internal medical qigong in people who have been diagnosed with T2DM.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622394/

Improve Type 2 Diabetes with Yoga

Improve Type 2 Diabetes with Yoga

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

Regular yoga practice can help reduce the level of sugar in the blood, along with lowering blood pressure, keeping a weight check, reducing the symptoms and slowing the rate of progression of diabetes, as well as lessening the severity of further complications.” – Art of Living

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable. Although this has been called adult-onset diabetes it is increasingly being diagnosed in children. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world. It is clear that there is a need to discover alternative methods treatments for Type II diabetes.

 

In today’s Research News article “A Randomized controlled trial of the effect of yoga and peer support on glycaemic outcomes in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a feasibility study.” See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5297169/, Sreedevi and colleagues recruited women in rural India who were diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes. They were randomly assigned to receive either treatment as usual or treatment as usual plus peer support or yoga practice. Peer support involved twice weekly visits by trained women who also had Type 2 Diabetes. The yoga practice consisted of twice weekly, 60-minute, yoga practice over 3 months, consisting of postures and relaxation training. The women were measured before and after the 3-month training period for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, quality of life pharmacological adherence, height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio, blood pressure and total cholesterol.

 

They found that adherence to the program was 80% to 90% in the yoga and peer support groups. They also found that, in comparison to the treatment as usual control group, both the yoga and peer support groups had significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), is a plasma measure that reflects the average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months. It indicates how well the individual is controlling their diabetes. Importantly, the yoga group in comparison to the peer support and treatment as usual conditions showed improved blood pressure and hip circumference. Hence, both peer support and yoga practice were beneficial but yoga practice more so, for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

 

It has long been known that diet and exercise are beneficial in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Since yoga practice is a form of exercise and the results show that it also improves compliance with dietary restrictions, it is not surprising that yoga practice improves the processing of glucose, blood pressure, and body size. Hence yoga practice appears to be a safe and effective treatment for women with Type 2 Diabetes.

 

So, improve type 2 diabetes with yoga.

 

“yoga’s benefits for those with diabetes aren’t just physical: the process can help patients with the condition or its pre-indicators on more fundamental levels as well. By calming the awareness and integrating the mind with the body, yoga can relieve the daily stresses that often lie at the heart of diabetic symptoms.” -YogaU

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Sreedevi, A., Gopalakrishnan, U. A., Karimassery Ramaiyer, S., & Kamalamma, L. (2017). A Randomized controlled trial of the effect of yoga and peer support on glycaemic outcomes in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a feasibility study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 17, 100. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1574-x

 

Abstract

Background

Type two diabetes is a complex and demanding chronic disease and its impact in a state (Kerala) which leads India in terms of the number of people with Diabetes is profound. Though the male to female ratio among the people with diabetes is roughly equal, women are uniquely and more severely affected. Management of type two Diabetes requires considerable dexterity on the part of the patient to manage drugs, diet and exercise. Therefore, in a low middle-income country like India it is necessary to look at low cost interventions that can empower the patient and build on available resources to help manage diabetes. Hence, we studied the feasibility and effect of two low cost interventions; yoga and peer support on glycaemic and other outcomes among women with type two diabetes.

Methods

An open label parallel three armed randomized control trial was conducted among 124 recruited women with Diabetes for three months. Block randomization with a block length of six was carried out with each group having at least 41 women. In the Yoga arm, sessions by an instructor, consisting of a group of postures coordinated with breathing were conducted for an hour, two days a week. In the peer support arm each peer mentor after training visited 13–14 women with diabetes every week followed by a phone call. The meeting was about applying disease management or prevention plans in daily life.

Results

There was a trend in decline of fasting plasma glucose in the peer and yoga group and of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the yoga group only, though not significant. A significant decrease was observed in diastolic blood pressure and hip circumference in the yoga group. The process indicated that most (80%) of the women in the yoga group attended classes regularly and 90% of the women in the peer group reported that peer mentoring was useful.

Conclusion

The effect of yoga and peer support on glycaemic outcomes was incremental. Longer term studies are necessary to ascertain the benefits shown by this feasibility study.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5297169/

Improve Depression with Diabetes with Mindfulness

Improve Depression with Diabetes with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“There is reasonable evidence that mindfulness training decreases anxiety and depression in people with medical conditions like diabetes. On the other hand, what little evidence exists seems to suggest that this alone will not result in better self-management in chronic diseases such as diabetes.” – Andrew Keen

 

Clinically diagnosed depression is the most common mental illness, affecting over 6% of the population. Major depression can be quite debilitating. It is also generally episodic, coming and going. Some people only have a single episode but most have multiple reoccurrences of depression.  Depression can be difficult to treat. It is usually treated with anti-depressive medication. But, of patients treated initially with drugs only about a third attained remission of the depression. After repeated and varied treatments including drugs, therapy, exercise etc. only about two thirds of patients attained remission. But, drugs often have troubling side effects and can lose effectiveness over time. In addition, many patients who achieve remission have relapses and recurrences of the depression. Even after remission some symptoms of depression may still be present (residual symptoms).

 

Being depressed and not responding to treatment or relapsing is a terribly difficult situation. The patients are suffering and nothing appears to work to relieve their intense depression. Suicide becomes a real possibility. So, it is imperative that other treatments be identified. Mindfulness training is another alternative treatment for depression. It has been shown to be an effective treatment for depression and is also effective for the prevention of its recurrence. Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) was specifically developed to treat depression and can be effective even in the cases where drugs fail. It is a combination of two effective treatments; mindfulness training with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). There have been very few controlled trials comparing MBCT to CBT. Such trials could be important for identifying which patients respond best to the which treatment.

 

In today’s Research News article “What works best for whom? Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes.” See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5491069/, Tavote and colleagues conduct a comparison of the effectiveness of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for the treatment of depression that commonly occurs with diabetes patients. They recruited adult patients with Type I or Type II diabetes who were also depressed and randomly assigned them to receive either MBCT or CBT. Both treatments involved 8 weekly meetings lasting 45 to 60 minutes. Homework was also assigned. They were measured at baseline for demographic characteristics, clinical psychological symptoms, personality, and diabetes characteristics. They were also measured for depression prior to and following treatment and 9-months later.

 

They found, as have many others, that both Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) produced significant reductions in depression in the diabetic patients that were maintained at the 9-month follow-up. They also found that MBCT was superior to CBT in relieving depression in highly educated patients. The two treatments were not significantly different in effectiveness for patients who differed on disease-related characteristics, or on clinical and personality factors.

 

Hence, the results suggest that MBCT and CBT are equivalently effective for depression except for highly educated diabetics who respond best to MBCT. It is not clear why highly educated depressed diabetics respond better when mindfulness training is added to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This should be further investigated in future research studies.

 

So, improve depression with diabetes with mindfulness

 

“Many people with diabetes find it difficult not to judge themselves based on their blood glucose numbers. If the numbers are not in range, that makes them feel bad, and they stop turning to the meter. Mindfulness works not by eliminating guilt, shame, or depression but by guiding people to work though these emotions and accomplish what they need to do to feel better — either by pushing through a workout, passing up an extra piece of cake, or checking blood sugar even though they’re in a bad mood.” – Kara Harrington

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Tovote, K. A., Schroevers, M. J., Snippe, E., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Links, T. P., Sanderman, R., & Fleer, J. (2017). What works best for whom? Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes. PLoS ONE, 12(6), e0179941. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179941

 

Abstract

Objective

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) have shown to be effective interventions for treating depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes. However, little is known about which intervention works best for whom (i.e., moderators of efficacy). The aim of this study was to identify variables that differentially predicted response to either CBT or MBCT (i.e., prescriptive predictors).

Methods

The sample consisted of 91 adult outpatients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and comorbid depressive symptoms (i.e., BDI-II ≥ 14) who were randomized to either individual 8-week CBT (n = 45) or individual 8-week MBCT (n = 46). Patients were followed for a year and depressive symptoms were measured at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at 9-months follow-up. The predictive effect of demographics, depression related characteristics, and disease specific characteristics on change in depressive symptoms was assessed by means of hierarchical regression analyses.

Results

Analyses showed that education was the only factor that differentially predicted a decrease in depressive symptoms directly after the interventions. At post-treatment, individuals with higher educational attainment responded better to MBCT, as compared to CBT. Yet, this effect was not apparent at 9-months follow-up.

Conclusions

This study did not identify variables that robustly differentially predicted treatment effectiveness of CBT and MBCT, indicating that both CBT and MBCT are accessible interventions that are effective for treating depressive symptoms in broad populations with diabetes. More research is needed to guide patient-treatment matching in clinical practice.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5491069/

Improve Blood Glucose Control with Mindfulness

Improve Blood Glucose Control with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“In addition to helping people with diabetes learn how to recognize and accept negative emotions, mindfulness therapies include meditation and yoga to help ease stress and depression.” – Lauren Cox

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable. Although this has been called adult-onset diabetes it is increasingly being diagnosed in children. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world.

 

Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia.

 

It is clear that methods need to be found to reduce the likelihood of the development of Type II diabetes. One promising avenue is mindfulness. It has been shown to be effective in treating Type II diabetes. In today’s Research News article “Associations of Mindfulness with Glucose Regulation and Diabetes.” See summary below or view the full text of the study at:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4928637/

Loucks and colleagues investigate the correlation between mindfulness and indicators and predictors of Type II diabetes and blood glucose levels. They recruited a sample of adults (average age of 47 years) and measured their levels of mindfulness, blood glucose level, the presence of Type II diabetes, body mass, perceived stress, sense of control, blood pressure, lipids, physical activity, smoking, depression, and socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and family history of diabetes.

 

They found that the higher the level of mindfulness the greater the likelihood of having a normal blood glucose level and the lower the likelihood of having type II diabetes and the lower the likelihood of being obese. A further analysis revealed that the relationship between high mindfulness and normal blood glucose level was mediated by obesity. That is, high mindfulness was associated with lower obesity which was then associated with more normal blood glucose levels. Hence the present findings suggest that mindfulness tends to be associated with lower incidence of Type II diabetes and normal blood glucose levels at least in part because highly mindful people tend to have less obesity.

 

These are interesting results, but, the study is correlation and as such causation cannot be established. But, the results fit with prior manipulative studies and as such tend to support a causal connection such that high mindfulness prevents overweight and obesity, lowering the risk of Type II diabetes.

 

So, improve blood glucose control with mindfulness.

 

“Mindfulness has been shown to help with reducing stress, regulating emotions and coping with anxious states and low moods. Research has also shown that a regular mindfulness practice is associated with reduced blood pressure, reduced insulin resistance and a lower HbA1C.” – Centre for Mindfulness Studies

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

Loucks, E. B., Gilman, S. E., Britton, W. B., Gutman, R., Eaton, C. B., & Buka, S. L. (2016). Associations of Mindfulness with Glucose Regulation and Diabetes. American Journal of Health Behavior, 40(2), 258–267. http://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.40.2.11

 

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate whether dispositional mindfulness is associated with glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Study participants (N = 399) were from the New England Family Study, a prospective birth cohort, with median age 47 years. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Type 2 diabetes and “normal plasma glucose” were defined using American Diabetes Association criteria.

Results

Multivariable-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that participants with high versus low MAAS scores were significantly more likely to have normal plasma glucose levels (prevalence ratio = 1.35 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08,1.87)), and were not significantly associated with type 2 diabetes (prevalence ratio = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.38,1.79), adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes and childhood socioeconomic status. Mediation analyses provided evidence of mediation via obesity and sense of control, where indirect effects were prevalence ratios (95% CI) of 1.03 (1.00,1.10) and 1.08 (1.00,1.21), respectively.

Conclusions

Dispositional mindfulness may be associated with better glucose regulation, in part because of a lower likelihood of obesity and greater sense of control among participants with higher levels of mindfulness. These findings need to be replicated by prospective studies to establish causality and to evaluate potential implications for mindfulness-based interventions to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4928637/

 

Improve Type II Diabetes with Yoga

Improve Type II Diabetes with Yoga

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“a number of studies have revealed that yoga can reduce contributing factors and help patients cope with diabetic symptoms. Although regular exercise can help, yoga for diabetes provides unique benefits that can effectively restore the body to a state of natural health and proper function.” – Yoga U

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable. Although this has been called adult-onset diabetes it is increasingly being diagnosed in children. One of the reasons for the increasing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is its association with overweight and obesity which is becoming epidemic in the industrialized world.

 

Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia.

 

A leading cause of this tissue resistance to insulin is overweight and obesity and a sedentary life style. Unlike Type I Diabetes, Type II does not require insulin injections. Instead, the treatment and prevention of Type 2 Diabetes focuses on diet, exercise, and weight control. Recently, mindfulness practices have been shown to be helpful in managing diabetes.

A mindfulness practice that combines mindfulness with exercise is yoga and it has been shown to be helpful in the treatment of Type II Diabetes. In order for any treatment, including yoga practice, to be effective beyond the guided treatment, the regimen of practice must be continued and adhered to.

 

In today’s Research News article “Adherence to yoga and its resultant effects on blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes: A community-based follow-up study.” See summary below or view the full text of the study at:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5225741/

Angadi and colleagues studied the effect of varying levels of adherence to yoga practice after treatment to treat the symptoms of Type II Diabetes. They recruited adult (40 years of age and older) patients who had been diagnosed with Type II Diabetes. As part of a previous study these patients had been practicing yoga for 3 months. To measure adherence, their attendance at continuing yoga practices was simply recorded over a 6-month period. Blood sugar levels, fasting and after a meal, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker of blood sugar level control, were measured at baseline and again at 1, 3, and 6 months.

 

They found that at the end of 6 months, the greater the attendance at yoga classes, the lower the fasting blood sugar levels. This suggests, not surprisingly, that adherence to attendance at yoga classes is important for the continuing effectiveness of yoga in reducing blood sugar levels in patients with Type II Diabetes. It should be noted that all of the participants in this study had been practicing yoga for 3 months prior and there was not a control comparison condition that did not practice yoga. As such, the primary effectiveness of yoga practice was already present. The current study simply looked at the consequences of varying levels of continuing yoga practice for the subsequent 6-month period. Hence, continuing a program of yoga practice appear to be helpful in maintaining the effectiveness of yoga practice as an adjunctive activity for the treatment of Type II Diabetes.

 

So, improve Type II Diabetes with yoga.

 

“Regular yoga practice can help reduce the level of sugar in the blood, along with lowering blood pressure, keeping your weight in check, reducing the severity of the symptoms  and slowing the rate of progression of the disease.” – TheHealthSite.com

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

Angadi, P., Jagannathan, A., Thulasi, A., Kumar, V., Umamaheshwar, K., & Raghuram, N. (2017). Adherence to yoga and its resultant effects on blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes: A community-based follow-up study. International Journal of Yoga, 10(1), 29–36. http://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.186159

 

Abstract

Aim:

To study the adherence to yoga and its effects on blood glucose parameters in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Methods:

A single group longitudinal study over 6 months was conducted at VASK yoga centre, Bangalore. Fasting Blood Sugar, Post Prandial Blood Sugar Levels and Glycosylated Hemoglobin and qualitative in-depth interview of the participants and therapist was conducted at baseline, end of 3rd month and end of 6 months; intermediate observations was conducted at the end of every month.

Results:

Adherence to yoga in the community in Bangalore is around 50% over 6 months. Participants who completed the yoga programme had significantly lower HbA1c (end of 3rd month). At the end of 6 months yoga adherence was significantly negatively correlated with FBS and stress. Further there was a trend towards those who dropped out having higher FBS, controlling for medication intake, stress levels and diet pattern (OR = 1.027, P = 0.07). Qualitative data revealed that most of the participants joined and completed the yoga programme to help cure their diabetes. Participants who dropped out from the yoga programme gave reasons of travel, ill-health and increased work-load at office.

Conclusions:

Adherence to yoga has an effect on the blood glucose parameters in diabetes. Hence, strategies to motivate participants to undergo ‘lifestyle modification practices’ including maximizing adherence to yoga should be the focus to experience any beneficial effects of yoga.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5225741/

 

Improve Type 2 Diabetes Management with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

Improve Type 2 Diabetes Management with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) – “Be more present to the “here-and-now.” This focus helps to decrease being caught up in what happened in the past. It also frees individuals from worrying too much about the future. Being present helps you to more fully connect to and enjoy the moment. Observe thoughts and feelings in such a way that they no longer keep you stuck in life. Learning to observe through openness and acceptance can help you find freedom from negative thoughts and feelings. Clarify your values and then take action. Finding what is most meaningful to you and choosing to act on these values are important parts of the therapy. This will be part of the process of building a rich and full life.” – VA Mental Health Services

 

Diabetes is a major health issue. It is estimated that 30 million people in the United States have diabetes and the numbers are growing. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, diabetes is heavily associated with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and circulatory problems leading to amputations. As a result, diabetes doubles the risk of death of any cause compared to individuals of the same age without diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable. Although this has been called adult-onset diabetes it is increasingly being diagnosed in children. Type 2 Diabetes results from a resistance of tissues, especially fat tissues, to the ability of insulin to promote the uptake of glucose from the blood. As a result, blood sugar levels rise producing hyperglycemia. A leading cause of this tissue resistance to insulin is overweight and obesity and a sedentary life style. Unlike Type I Diabetes, Type II does not require insulin injections. Instead, the treatment and prevention of Type 2 Diabetes focuses on diet, exercise, and weight control.

 

Recently, mindfulness practices have been shown to be helpful in managing diabetes. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a mindfulness based psychotherapy technique that focuses on the individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior and how they interact to impact their psychological and physical well-being. ACT employs mindfulness practices to increase awareness and develop an attitude of acceptance and compassion in the presence of painful thoughts and feelings. It has been shown to be affective for a number of physical and psychological issues. The effectiveness of ACT to enhance management of Type II Diabetes is not known.

 

In today’s Research News article “A Randomized Controlled Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Management: The Moderating Role of Coping Styles.” See summary below or view the full text of the study at:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5132195/

Shayeghian and colleagues recruited adult (40-60 years of age) patients with Type II Diabetes and randomly assigned them to either receive a one day diabetes health education training or health education plus 10 weeks, once a week two hour session, of group Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The participants were measured prior to, after, and 3 months after the intervention for Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), diabetes self-care activities, acceptance of diabetes-related thoughts and feelings, and coping styles.

 

They found that ACT, in comparison to education only, resulted in significantly lower glycated hemoglobin, higher self-care activities and higher acceptance scores. This suggests that ACT promotes self-care and acceptance of their disease which translates into better plasma glucose management. Importantly, these benefits were still significant three months after treatment, suggesting that the effects are enduring. They also found that patients with effective coping styles had a greater impact of ACT on their self-care, suggesting that ACT works better for people who use effective strategies to cope with their disease.

 

These are exciting results, as Type II diabetes is so prevalent and effective self-care so important to the health of the patient. They suggest that ACT  improves the self-care that is so important for successful disease management. But the conclusions must be tempered with the fact that the control condition did not have an additional active intervention, e.g. exercise. So, the results could have been due to placebo effects, experimenter bias, attentional effects, etc. These results, though provide support for implementing a larger randomized controlled clinical trial with an active control condition or comparison to other active treatments.

 

So, improve Type 2 Diabetes management with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

 

“Results show that participants walked significantly further following the programme, and had lower levels of anxiety, depression and diabetes-related distress. Average blood glucose levels (HbA1c) were shown to have reduced by 0.6%. Qualitative interviews showed that participants found ACT Now! to be engaging, acceptable, attractive and helpful.” – NHS Grampian

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

Study Summary

Shayeghian, Z., Hassanabadi, H., Aguilar-Vafaie, M. E., Amiri, P., & Besharat, M. A. (2016). A Randomized Controlled Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Management: The Moderating Role of Coping Styles. PLoS ONE, 11(12), e0166599. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166599

 

Abstract

Background and Aim

Evidence of the efficacy of existing psychological interventions for self-management in diabetes is limited. The current study aimed at assessing the effects of group-based ACT on self-management of patients with T2DM, considering the moderating role of coping styles.

Methods

One hundred and six patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned either to the education alone (n = 53) or to a combination of education and group-based acceptance and commitment therapy (n = 53) over a period of 10 sessions. In each group, 50 participants completed a 3 month follow-up assessment.

Results

After 3 months, compared to patients who received education alone, those in the group-based acceptance and commitment therapy condition were more likely to use effective coping strategies, reported better diabetes self-care, and optimum glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in the target range.

Conclusions

Consideration of the role of coping style for a more accurate evaluation of the effects of acceptance and commitment therapy may be a useful addition to services provided for patients with type 2 diabetes.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5132195/