Mindfulness Effects on Eating Disorders Depends on Ethnicity

Mindfulness Effects on Eating Disorders Depends on Ethnicity

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“The practice of mindful eating may be helpful to those struggling with eating disorders, such as bulimia, binge eating disorder and compulsive overeating. It is common for individuals with eating disorders to numb emotions through restricting, binging or choosing foods that are not pleasurable while eating. Mindful eating can help a person reconnect to the joy and experience of eating by creating an awareness of thoughts, emotions, feeling, and behaviors associated with the eating experience.” – Julia Casidy

 

Around 30 million people in the United States of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder; either anorexia nervosa, bulimia, or binge eating disorder. 95% of those who have eating disorders are between the ages of 12 and 26. Eating disorders are not just troubling psychological problems, they can be deadly, having the highest mortality rate of any mental illness. Eating disorders can be difficult to treat because eating is necessary and cannot be simply stopped as in smoking cessation or abstaining from drugs or alcohol. One must learn to eat appropriately not stop. So, it is important to find methods that can help prevent and treat eating disorders. Contemplative practices, mindfulness, and mindful eating have shown promise for treating eating disorders.

 

In today’s Research News article “Mindfulness as a Moderator of the Association Between Eating Disorder Cognition and Eating Disorder Behavior Among a Non-clinical Sample of Female College Students: A Role of Ethnicity.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00700/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_695451_69_Psycho_20180705_arts_A ), Masuda and colleagues recruited college women  and had them complete online demographic characteristics including racial identity and body size and measures of eating disorder behaviors, mindfulness, and the thought patterns associated with eating disorders (eating disorder cognitions). These include “rigid beliefs about the importance of weight regulation, strong beliefs in appearance as the basis of self-worth, and inflexible beliefs in self-control as the basis of self-esteem.”

 

They found that the higher the levels of mindfulness the lower the levels of eating disorder cognitions but only for Asian and white American and not black women mindfulness was also associated with lower levels of eating disorder behaviors. They then performed a hierarchical regression to determine moderation effects and found that only for white women mindfulness moderated the effects of eating disorder cognitions on eating disorder behaviors such that high mindfulness significantly weakened the association of cognitions with behavior.

 

These are interesting results that suggest that how young women think about eating disorders affects eating disordered behavior. Mindfulness only appeared to influence this association for a single racial group, white American women. Since most research with eating disorders is performed with young white women, these results call into question the generalizability of mindfulness ability to reduce eating disorders. It would appear to be not true for black and Asian American women. Why mindfulness effects differ between racial groups is unknown and will require future research to investigate.

 

What is clear is that how a woman thinks about her weight and self-worth is a significant contributor to the potential development of an eating disorder. This predicts that perhaps Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) might be particularly useful in treating or preventing eating disorders particularly in white women.

 

“Practicing mindfulness techniques has proven to be extremely helpful in aiding individuals to understand the driving forces behind their eating disorder. . . students receiving mindfulness demonstrated significant reductions in weight and shape concern, dietary restraint, thin-ideal internalization, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment.”

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Masuda A, Marshall RD and Latner JD (2018) Mindfulness as a Moderator of the Association Between Eating Disorder Cognition and Eating Disorder Behavior Among a Non-clinical Sample of Female College Students: A Role of Ethnicity. Front. Psychol. 9:700. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00700

 

The present cross-sectional study examined whether mindfulness moderated the association between eating disorder cognition and eating disorder behaviors among Asian American, Black American, and White American female college students in the United States. Participants (N = 463, age range = 18–25 years) completed self-report measures online. Results revealed that mindfulness moderated the association between eating disorder cognition and eating disorder behavior in the White American group, but not in Asian American or Black American samples. Future research should replicate these differential findings across ethnic groups and investigate the factors that may contribute to this group difference.

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00700/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_695451_69_Psycho_20180705_arts_A

 

Improve Mental Health with Mindfulness

Improve Mental Health with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“While mindfulness will not solve all of our problems, it is a powerful tool with great potential to help us all transform our relationship with our problems when it is not possible, or desirable, to eliminate them.” – Elana Miller

 

Mindfulness training has been shown to be effective in improving physical and psychological health and particularly with the physical and psychological reactions to stress. Techniques such as Mindfulness Training, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) as well as Yoga practice and Tai Chi or Qigong practice have been demonstrated to be effective. This has led to an increasing adoption of these mindfulness techniques for the physical and psychological health and well-being of both healthy and ill individuals.

 

In today’s Research News article “Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Psychiatry.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5870875/ ), Shapero and colleagues review and summarize the published research literature on the application of mindfulness techniques to the treatment of mental illnesses.

 

They report that the most commonly used mindfulness technique for the treatment of mental illness is Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) particularly for the treatment of major depressive disorder. MBCT has been shown to be as effective as antidepressant drugs in relieving the symptoms of depression and preventing depression reoccurrence and relapse. In addition, it appears to be effective as either a supplement to or a replacement for these drugs.

 

Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have also been found to improve mood and relieve anxiety in patients suffering from anxiety and mood disorders and treat the symptoms of Bipolar Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and eating disorders. They have also been found to reduce drug cravings and use as well as reduce substance abuse relapse after treatment.

 

They further report that the research suggests that Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) produce these benefits by focusing on the present moment in a non-reactive and non-judgmental way and improving emotion regulation and thereby decreasing negative thought patterns, emotional reactivity, rumination, and worry, and increasing self-compassion. In the cognitive realm, MBIs appear to produce a different relationship with the thoughts of the individuals by noticing them and developing different ways of relating and reacting to them.

 

One way that MBIs appear to have their effects is by altering the nervous system in a process known as neuroplasticity. These include changes to eight brain regions, including areas associated with meta-awareness (frontopolar cortex), exteroceptive and interoceptive body awareness (sensory cortices and insula), memory consolidation and reconsolidation (hippocampus), self and emotion regulation (anterior and mid cingulate; orbitofrontal cortex), and intra- and interhemispheric communication (superior longitudinal fasciculus; corpus callosum).

 

These are striking findings that strongly suggest that Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are safe and very effective treatments for a wide array of psychiatric disorders. They appear to work by altering thought processes, emotion regulation, and focus on the present moment. They appear to alter the brain to produce these benefits. This suggests that MBIs should be widely prescribed to relieve the symptoms and suffering produced by mental illness.

 

So, improve mental health with Mindfulness.

 

“Mindfulness and the traditional way psychiatry is practiced are really more divergent than anything else. Psychiatry is about removing emotional pain, whereas mindfulness teaches us the value of being present with our pain. It was through the practice of mindfulness that I started to learn this new perspective and started to relate to my own pain differently. Instead of running away from it, I was taught to welcome it; to befriend it and thus convert it into a source for my own emotional and spiritual growth.” – Russel Razzaque

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Shapero, B. G., Greenberg, J., Pedrelli, P., de Jong, M., & Desbordes, G. (2018). Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Psychiatry. Focus (American Psychiatric Publishing), 16(1), 32–39. http://doi.org/10.1176/appi.focus.20170039

 

Abstract

Mindfulness meditation has a longstanding history in eastern practices that has received considerable public interest in recent decades. Indeed, the science, practice, and implementation of Mindfulness Based Interventions (MBIs) have dramatically increased in recent years. At its base, mindfulness is a natural human state in which an individual experiences and attends to the present moment. Interventions have been developed to train individuals how to incorporate this practice into daily life. The current article will discuss the concept of mindfulness and describe its implementation in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. We further identify for whom MBIs have been shown to be efficacious and provide an up-to-date summary of how these interventions work. This includes research support for the cognitive, psychological, and neural mechanisms that lead to psychiatric improvements. This review provides a basis for incorporating these interventions into treatment.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5870875/

 

Improve eating Disorders with Yoga

Improve eating Disorders with Yoga

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

The practice of yoga can offer a therapeutic venue for engaging in physical activity while providing an outlet for many of the symptoms associated with eating disorders.“ – Jacquelyn Ekern
Around 30 million people in the United States of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder; either anorexia nervosa, bulimia, or binge eating disorder. 95% of those who have eating disorders are between the ages of 12 and 26. Eating disorders are not just troubling psychological problems, they can be deadly, having the highest mortality rate of any mental illness. Eating disorders can be difficult to treat because eating is necessary and cannot be simply stopped as in smoking cessation or abstaining from drugs or alcohol. One must learn to eat appropriately not stop. So, it is important to find methods that can help prevent and treat eating disorders. Contemplative practices, mindfulness, and mindful eating have shown promise for treating eating disorders. In addition, yoga practice appears to be beneficial.

 

In today’s Research News article “Effect of yoga in the treatment of eating disorders: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial with 6-months follow-up.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: http://www.ijoy.org.in/article.asp?issn=0973-6131;year=2018;volume=11;issue=2;spage=166;epage=169;aulast=Karlsen ), Karlsen and colleagues recruited young adult women, over 18 years of age, with eating disorders, primarily bulimia and unspecified eating disorders and randomly assigned them to either a yoga practice condition or a wait-list control group. The Hatha Yoga practice occurred twice a week for 90 minutes for 11 weeks. They were measured before and after treatment and 6 months later for global eating disorders, restraint, eating concern, weight concern, and shape concern.

 

They found that the yoga practice women in comparison to baseline and the wait-list control group had significantly lower global eating disorders scores, restraint, eating concern, and weight concern at the end of training. These improvements increased over time being largest at the 6-month follow up measurements. No adverse events were observed. Unfortunately, about a third of the women in the yoga group dropped out over the course of training. This is comparable to drop out rates observed from other eating disorder treatments. Hence, Hatha Yoga practice appears to be a safe and effective treatment of eating disorders in young adult women.

 

It is not known how yoga may assist with eating disorders. But, eating disorders are often associated with distorted body images and yoga practice emphasizes the appreciation of the body as it is. This may work to improve the accuracy of the women’s body images. It is also possible that the mindfulness aspects of yoga practice ground the women more in the present moment. Eating disorders are associated with the projection of the impact of eating on future body fatness. By, focusing on the present moment and the experience of eating in the present moment, yoga practice may increase the pleasure of eating and decrease the worry about its future impact.

 

So, improve eating disorders with yoga.

 

“Yoga can be an effective tool to restore the imbalances in both the body and the mind that occur with eating disorders. Yoga has a profound ability to balance the emotions and has been shown to help relieve depression, anger and anxiety and to promote equanimity: a calm, clear focused mind. Yoga can also promote self-esteem and a positive body image, which play primary roles in eating disorders, through the cultivation of non-judgment, confidence, self-acceptance, openness and inner strength. Physically, a regular yoga practice can help rebuild the strength, energy and bone density that is damaged and lost with Anorexia.” – Timothy Burgin

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Karlsen KE, Vrabel K, Bratland-Sanda S, Ulleberg P, Benum K. Effect of yoga in the treatment of eating disorders: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial with 6-months follow-up. Int J Yoga 2018;11:166-9

 

Aim of the Study: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of yoga treatment of eating disorders (EDs). Methods: Adult females meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa or ED not otherwise specified (n = 30) were randomized to 11-week yoga intervention group (2 × 90 min/week) or a control group. Outcome measures, the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE)-Interview and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) scores, were administered at baseline, posttest, and at 6-month follow-up. There was a dropout rate of 30% (posttest) and 37% (6-month follow-up). Results: The intervention group showed reductions in EDE global score (P < 0.01), the EDE subscale restraint (P < 0.05), and eating concern (P < 0.01) compared to the control group. The differences between the groups increased at 6-month follow-up. There were no differences between the groups in the EDI-2 score. Conclusion: The results indicate that yoga could be effective in the treatment of ED.

http://www.ijoy.org.in/article.asp?issn=0973-6131;year=2018;volume=11;issue=2;spage=166;epage=169;aulast=Karlsen

Help Control Eating Disorders in Men with Mindfulness

Help Control Eating Disorders in Men with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“The practice of mindful eating can help a person create greater awareness of thoughts, emotions, feeling, and behaviors. While eating disorders effectively numb emotions, practicing mindfulness can help a person reflect on what they are feeling or experiencing prior to a binge.” – Jacquelyn Ekern

 

Around 30 million people in the United States of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder; either anorexia nervosa, bulimia, or binge eating disorder. Eating disorders are not just troubling psychological problems, they can be deadly, having the highest mortality rate of any mental illness. Anorexia Nervosa is particular troubling as it is often fatal as sufferers literally starve themselves to death. It occurs in about 1% to 4% of women in the U.S.  Indeed, the mortality rate associated with anorexia nervosa is 12 times higher than the death rate associated with all causes of death for females 15-24 years old.

 

Disordered eating is difficult to deal with in part because it is frequently paired with other disorders. In fact, around 50% of people with eating disorders also have a substance use disorder and 50% meet the criteria for clinical depression. Eating disorders are also frequently accompanied by anxiety and body image disturbance. Eating disorders are difficult to treat because eating is necessary and cannot be simply stopped as in smoking cessation or abstaining from drugs or alcohol. One must learn to eat appropriately not stop. So, it is important to find methods that can help prevent and treat eating disorders. Contemplative practices, mindfulness, and mindful eating have shown promise for treating eating disorders.

 

Most of the research, however, involves women, but eating disorders are also present in men. Hence, there is a need to study the effectiveness of mindfulness on eating disorders in men. In today’s Research News article “A preliminary investigation of the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms among men in residential substance use treatment.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5659606/ ), Elmquist and colleagues study the relationship of mindfulness to eating disorders in men who also suffer from a substance use disorder. They recruited men who were being treated in a 12-step based residential treatment program for substance use. They were measured for substance use, eating disorder symptoms, and mindfulness.

 

They found that the higher the levels of mindfulness in these men, the lower the levels of both substance use and eating disorder symptoms. Further, they found that the negative relationship of mindfulness with eating disorder symptoms was present even when the levels of substance use were controlled. So, mindfulness was negatively associated with lower eating disorder symptoms, regardless of substance use.

 

This study was correlational and mindfulness was not manipulated. So, causation cannot be concluded. But mindfulness training has been found to be effective in treating eating disorders in women. So, it is reasonable to conclude that this would also be true for men. Further, these results suggest that since mindfulness training is effective for treating eating disorders and also substance use disorders, that mindfulness training would be particularly effective for people with comorbidity of the two disorders.

 

So, help control eating disorders in men with mindfulness.

 

“Practicing mindfulness techniques has proven to be extremely helpful in aiding individuals to understand the driving forces behind their eating disorder. Studies have shown that “students receiving mindfulness demonstrated significant reductions in weight and shape concern, dietary restraint, thin-ideal internalization, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment” . . . In a world that is constantly clouded with distractions, cultivating mindfulness can help suffering individuals become comfortable in their own skin.” – Greta Gleissner 

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Elmquist, J., Shorey, R. C., Anderson, S. E., & Stuart, G. L. (2017). A preliminary investigation of the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms among men in residential substance use treatment. Addiction Research & Theory, 25(1), 67–73. http://doi.org/10.1080/16066359.2016.1198475

 

Abstract

The comorbidity between eating disorders (EDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) is of particular concern given the high rates of mortality, relapse and poor treatment outcomes associated with both disorders. As a result, there has been a growing impetus within the field to elucidate factors that might influence and aid treatment for this comorbidity. One such factor is dispositional mindfulness, as past literature has demonstrated a significant relationship between mindfulness and both EDs and SUDs. However, we are unaware of any research that has examined the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and ED symptoms in a sample of men in residential treatment for SUDs. Medical records from 152 men were included in the current study. Alcohol and drug use and problems, ED symptoms, and dispositional mindfulness were assessed with self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that dispositional mindfulness was inversely related to ED symptoms after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age. Although results are preliminary and continued research in this area is needed, our findings suggest that there may be potential usefulness in targeting and enhancing mindfulness among patients in residential treatment for SUDs with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms (e.g., EDs).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5659606/

Improve Eating Disorders with Yoga

Improve Eating Disorders with Yoga

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“One of the biggest ways yoga helped me heal from anorexia was the release it provided me. I had stored so much in my body, so much pain and sadness, that often when I practiced yoga I would sob. I wouldn’t know where the tears were coming from, which used to scare me, but eventually I realized I was softening my grip. I was letting go of who I was in order to become who I am.” – Jennifer Pastiloff

 

Around 30 million people in the United States of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder; either anorexia nervosa, bulimia, or binge eating disorder.  95% of those who have eating disorders are between the ages of 12 and 26. Eating disorders are not just troubling psychological problems, they can be deadly, having the highest mortality rate of any mental illness. Anorexia Nervosa is particular troubling as it is often fatal as sufferers literally starve themselves to death. It occurs in about 1% to 4% of women in the U.S.  Indeed, the mortality rate associated with anorexia nervosa is 12 times higher than the death rate associated with all causes of death for females 15-24 years old.

 

Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by the initiation of eating frequently in wildly excessive amounts. It is called disinhibited eating as there appears to be no restraints (inhibitions) that stop food intake. Once eating starts it goes on without anything holding it back. “Binge eating disorder is the most common eating disorder in the United States, affecting 3.5% of women, 2% of men, and up to 1.6% of adolescents.” – National Eating Disorders Association. Bulimia Nervosa is characterized by a cycle of binge eating followed by some form of purge, often induced vomiting. It is estimated that up to 4% of females in the United States will have bulimia during their lifetime. Tragically around 4% of the sufferers will die.

 

Disordered eating is difficult to deal with in part because it is frequently paired with other disorders. In fact, around 50% of people with eating disorders meet the criteria for clinical depression. They are also frequently accompanied by anxiety and body image disturbance Eating disorders are also difficult to treat because eating is necessary and cannot be simply stopped as in smoking cessation or abstaining from drugs or alcohol. One must learn to eat appropriately not stop. So, it is important to find methods that can help prevent and treat eating disorders. Contemplative practices, mindfulness, and mindful eating have shown promise for treating eating disorders. In addition, yoga practice appears to be beneficial.

 

In today’s Research News article “Use of yoga in outpatient eating disorder treatment: a pilot study.” See summary below or view the full text of the study at:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5148831/

Hall and colleagues recruited adolescent girls, aged 11-18 years, who were diagnosed with an eating disorder, either anorexia, bulimia, avoidant restrictive food intake disorder, or other specified feeding or eating disorder and received medical monitoring, nutritional counseling and social work intervention. They attended 6-10 weekly 60 to 90-minute yoga classes in addition to their usual treatment. They were measured before and after training for depression, anxiety, anorexia, and symptoms of eating disorders.

 

They found that participation in yoga produced a reduction in anorexia, depression, and anxiety. There were also significant decreases in weight concern and shape concern. Hence, participation in yoga appeared to have significant benefits for adolescent girls with eating disorders reducing body image concerns, improving mood, and reducing restrictive dieting. Yoga appears to be capable of reducing anxiety and depression in college students who do not have an eating disorder. So, the results simply extend these findings to eating disordered adolescent girls. Many girls with eating disorders engage in vigorous exercise to help control weight. It is possible that yoga practice was an effective substitute exercise.

 

It should be pointed out that this was a pilot study that did not have a control condition. So, it cannot be concluded that participation in yoga caused the observed changes, as a number of confounding factors such as participant expectancy effects, experimenter bias, spontaneous remission, attention effects, etc. could have been responsible for the effects. So, although promising, more rigorous research is needed to draw firm conclusions. The results, however, suggest that yoga may be a useful adjunctive treatment for adolescent girls with eating disorders.

 

Yoga is not a magic wand or an instant fix, but the practice consists of tiny changes which together will not in itself alter your life, but can alter your attitude to life, the tools you use to cope with difficult situations, the approach you take to daily activities, and thus, in all of this, be life changing.” – Francesca Baker

 

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

Hall, A., Ofei-Tenkorang, N. A., Machan, J. T., & Gordon, C. M. (2016). Use of yoga in outpatient eating disorder treatment: a pilot study. Journal of Eating Disorders, 4, 38. http://doi.org/10.1186/s40337-016-0130-2

 

Abstract

Background

Individuals with restrictive eating disorders present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders and many attempt to control symptoms using strenuous exercises that increase caloric expenditure. Yoga offers a safe avenue for the engagement in physical activity while providing an outlet for disease-associated symptoms. This study sought to examine use of yoga practice in an outpatient setting and its impact on anxiety, depression and body image disturbance in adolescents with eating disorders.

Methods

Twenty adolescent girls were recruited from an urban eating disorders clinic who participated in weekly yoga classes at a local studio, in addition to standard multidisciplinary care. Yoga instructors underwent training regarding this patient population. Participants completed questionnaires focused on anxiety, depression and body image disturbance prior to the first class, and following completion of 6 and 12 classes.

Results

In participants who completed the study, a statistically significant decrease in anxiety, depression, and body image disturbance was seen, including: Spielberger State anxiety mean scores decreased after the completion of 7–12 yoga classes [47 (95%CI 42–52) to 42 (95%CI 37–47), adj. p = 0.0316]; as did the anorexia nervosa scale [10 (95% CI 7–12) vs. 6 (95%CI 4–8), adj. p = .0004], scores on Beck depression scales [18 (95%CI 15–22) to 10 (95%CI 6–14), adj. p = .0001], and weight and shape concern scores [16 (95%CI 12–20) to 12 (95%CI 8–16), adj. p =0.0120] and [31 (95%CI 25–37) to 20 (95%CI 13–27), adj. p = 0.0034], respectively. No significant changes in body mass index were seen throughout the trial.

Conclusions

Yoga practice combined with outpatient eating disorder treatment were shown to decrease anxiety, depression, and body image disturbance without negatively impacting weight. These preliminary results suggest yoga to be a promising adjunct treatment strategy, along with standard multidisciplinary care. However, whether yoga should be endorsed as a standard component of outpatient eating disorder treatment merits further study.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5148831/