Improve Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) with Mindfulness

Improve Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“IBS causes a huge public health and economic burden in the U.S. The standard of care currently has been diet changes along with medications. A mind-based . . . has the potential to minimize both the public health and economic burden of this debilitating disease,” – Saurabh Sethi

 

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder with worldwide prevalence rates ranging from 9–23%. In the U.S. the rates generally in the area of 10–15% affecting between 25 and 45 million people. IBS is not life threatening but it is very uncomfortable producing changes in bowel movement patterns, bloating and excess gas, and pain in the lower belly. It is also a major source of absenteeism both at work and in school. IBS is also associated with a marked reduction in the individual’s health quality of life, with disruption of the physical, psychological and social routines of the individuals. At present, there are no known cures for IBS and treatments involve symptomatic relief, often with fairly radical dietary changes.

 

The cause(s) of IBS are not known. But emotion dysregulation is suspected to be involved. It is clear that psychological stress exacerbates the illnesses and anxiety amplifies the symptoms. This suggests that mindfulness or the lack thereof may be involved as mindfulness is known to be helpful in reducing the psychological and physical responses to stress and mindfulness is known to improve emotion regulation. In addition, It has been shown that meditation and yoga can help relieve IBS symptoms.  So, it would make sense to further investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness training and emotion regulation for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).

 

In today’s Research News article “Comparing the Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Therapy with Emotion Regulation Treatment on Quality of Life and Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6178327/ ), Ghandi and colleagues recruited patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and randomly assigned them to receive either an 8-week, once a week for 90 minutes program of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), Emotion Regulation group training, or a wait-list. The MBSR treatment consisted of body scan, meditation, and yoga practices and group discussion with homework. Emotion Regulation training consisted in training on “emotional awareness” and “acceptance”. The patients were measured before and after training and 2 months later for IBS severity and quality of life with IBS.

 

They found that both Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Emotion Regulation training produced significant improvements in IBS severity and the quality of life with IBS and that this effectiveness was maintained 2 months later. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of MBSR and emotion regulation training. Hence, both MBSR and emotion regulation training produce large and lasting improvements in the symptoms of IBS and the quality of life of the patients.

 

Since MBSR training is known to improve emotion regulation, the fact that MBSR and emotion regulation training produced equivalent benefits suggests that MBSR may be effective for IBS because of its ability to improve emotion regulation, particularly improving the emotional responses to stress. It will require further research to examine this possibility.

 

So, improve Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) with mindfulness.

 

“For a person who has IBS, mindfulness-based therapies are thought to help to reduce anxiety related to digestive symptoms. Due to our body’s natural stress response, such anxiety can actually exacerbate the very digestive symptoms that a person with IBS is most concerned about. The theory behind mindfulness-based therapies for IBS is that when you experience less reactivity to physical sensations related to your digestive system, you will experience less unwanted symptoms.” – Barbara Bolen

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

Abstract

 

Ghandi, F., Sadeghi, A., Bakhtyari, M., Imani, S., Abdi, S., & Banihashem, S. S. (2018). Comparing the Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Therapy with Emotion Regulation Treatment on Quality of Life and Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Iranian journal of psychiatry, 13(3), 175-183.

 

Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome is a common gastrointestinal disorder. The perception of stress and GI-specific anxiety play a key role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The present study aims at comparing the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy with emotion regulation on the quality of life and severity in patients IBS.

Method : This randomized clinical trial was conducted in 3 phases: pretest, posttest, and follow-up. Follow-up was performed 2 months after the last intervention. The study population consisted of 24 IBS patients who were randomly selected according to Rome-IV Criteria and were then divided into 3 eight-member groups: (1) mindfulness-based stress reduction, (2) emotion regulation, and (3) control group. IBS-QOL34 and IBS-SSS were administered as assessment tools to all the 3 groups. The experimental groups were subjected to MBSR and ER psychotherapy, while the control group received no psychological intervention. After the 2-month follow-up, the 3 groups were evaluated again.

Results: The results revealed that MBSR improved the quality of life of IBS patients and dicreased severity of their condition. The findings of between and within subjects design revealed that the difference between MBSR and control groups was significant in IBS at follow-up (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: MBSR could be considered as a new, effective, and stable method in psychotherapy, in irritable bowel syndrome.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6178327/

 

Improve Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) with Mindfulness

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Improve Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Dealing with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) isn’t easy, but the stress (and the symptoms) involved may be lessened with mindfulness meditation.” – Andrew Weil

 

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder with worldwide prevalence rates ranging from 9–23%. In the U.S. the rates generally in the area of 10–15% affecting between 25 and 45 million people. IBS is not life threatening but it is very uncomfortable producing changes in bowel movement patterns, bloating and excess gas, and pain in the lower belly. It is also a major source of absenteeism both at work and in school. IBS is also associated with a marked reduction in the individual’s health quality of life, with disruption of the physical, psychological and social routines of the individuals. At present, there are no known cures for IBS and treatments involve symptomatic relief, often with fairly radical dietary changes.

 

It has been shown that meditation and yoga can help relieve IBS symptoms but there is a need for more research, particularly of the long-term effectiveness of mindfulness on the symptoms of IBS. In today’s Research News article “Long Term Effects of Mindfulness on Quality of life in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.” See:

https://www.facebook.com/ContemplativeStudiesCenter/photos/a.628903887133541.1073741828.627681673922429/1457490580941530/?type=3&theater

or see summary below or view the full text of the study at:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4752522/

Zomorrodi and colleagues recruited adult (average age = 34) participants who had been diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). They randomly assigned them to either receive treatment as usual or treatment as usual combined with an 8-week, once a week for 2 hours, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. The participants were measured for health quality of life before, and after treatment and were followed-up 2 months later.

 

They found that the MBSR group had a clinically significant (25%) improvement in their health-related quality of life that was sustained at the 2-month follow-up whereas the treatment as usual group showed no improvement. Hence mindfulness training improves the physical, psychological and social impact of IBS on the lives of the patients. These results are important as they show a sustained, relatively long-term improvement produced by MBSR treatment.  Many studies only report improvements measured immediately after treatment. A treatment that is effective only as long as it is being actively administered is of limited usefulness, while one that lasts well beyond the actual time of treatment is much more valuable.

 

It is not known exactly how mindfulness training improve the health-related quality of life in IBS patients. It can be speculated, however, that the training, by focusing the patient on the present moment reduces the worry and catastrophizing about the future that usually accompanies disease. This would allow the patient to focus only on their current physical state and not amplify the symptoms with worry. In addition, mindfulness training is known to reduce the psychological and physiological responses to stress. Stress is well known to exacerbate disease states. So, stress reduction would tend to improve the symptoms of IBS and improve the health-related quality of life.

 

So, improve irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with mindfulness.

 

“compared to the control group, participants in the mindfulness training group improved on IBS-related quality of life and gastrointestinal-specific anxiety, depression, and general functioning.” – Mindful

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts

 

Study Summary

Zomorrodi, S., Rasoulzadeh Tabatabaie, S. K., Azadfallah, P., Ebrahimidaryani, N., & Arbabi, M. (2015). Long Term Effects of Mindfulness on Quality of life in Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 10(2), 100–105.

 

Abstract

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of mindfulness-based therapy on improving life quality of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

Method: This was an experimental study including 24 patients (12 from each group) with IBS syndrome were selected based on the ROMEIII criteria and were randomly placed in the test and control groups. In both groups, the scales of the IBS-QOL34 Questionnaire were applied as assessment tool. Experiment group was subjected to the MFT (mindfulness-based therapy), while the control group received no intervention. After the two-month follow up, both groups were once again evaluated through the IBS-QOL34 scales.

Results: There is not significant difference between trial and control group in starting of the study in demographic and quality of life status. The findings of covariance analysis revealed that the difference between the experiment and the control groups at follow-up was significant (p = 0.01). The results showed that the MFT has long-term effects on the life quality of patients suffering from IBS.

Conclusion: The MFT could be considered as a new, effective and stable method in psychotherapy, particularly in psychosomatic disorders such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4752522/

 

Make Irritable Bowel Syndrome Less Irritating with Yoga

 

“The word yoga comes from Sanskrit, the language of ancient India. It means union, integration, or wholeness. It is an approach to health that promotes the harmonious collaboration of the human being’s three components: body, mind, and spirit.” – Stella Weller

 

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder with worldwide prevalence rates ranging from 9–23% and U.S. rates generally in the area of 10–15% affecting between 25 and 45 million people. IBS is not life threatening but it is very uncomfortable producing changes in bowel movement patterns, bloating and excess gas, and pain in the lower belly. It is also a major source of absenteeism both at work and in school. At present there are no known cures for IBS and treatments involve symptomatic relief, often with fairly radical dietary changes.

 

It has been shown that meditation can help relieve IBS symptoms but there is a need to find more and better treatments. Yoga practice can involve particular postures that are directed at affecting the GI tract. It is also a meditative practice. So, it would seem reasonable to investigate whether yoga practice may be useful in treating IBS. In today’s Research News article “Iyengar Yoga for Adolescents and Young Adults with Irritable Bowel Syndrome”

https://www.facebook.com/ContemplativeStudiesCenter/photos/a.628903887133541.1073741828.627681673922429/1109123002444958/?type=3&theater

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4146428/

Evans and colleagues compared 6-weeks of yoga practice to care as usual for Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adolescents (14-17 yrs.) and young adults (18-26 yrs.).

 

They found that the yoga practice had a much greater impact in the young adults than in the adolescents. Yoga practice produced significant improvement in physical functioning in the adolescents but the young adults who practiced yoga showed significant improvements in IBS symptoms, global improvement, psychological distress, functional disability, fatigue, and sleep quality. These improvements were still significant 2 months after the end of yoga practice.

 

IBS is usually not diagnosed until adulthood. But there are a group of adolescents who also suffer from IBS. It is interesting that yoga practice for the most part did not significantly help them. This may indicate that early onset IBS may in some ways be different or more difficult to treat than adult onset IBS. It could also indicate that adolescents are not particularly good patients and due to non-compliance do not respond to otherwise effective treatments.

 

The effectiveness for the young adults is striking and potentially very significant. This raises the question, however, of how yoga practice might be affective with IBS symptoms. As mentioned above, there are yoga postures that target and manipulate the GI tract and these were emphasized in the yoga taught in the study. It is possible that these manipulations of the GI tract have a positive effect on regularizing GI transit. It was also mentioned above that meditation has been shown to be helpful for IBS and meditation is a component of yoga practice.

 

In addition, research has demonstrated that yoga decreases the inflammatory response (see http://contemplative-studies.org/wp/index.php/2015/09/11/reduce-inflammation-with-yoga/ and http://contemplative-studies.org/wp/index.php/2015/08/27/control-inflammation-with-mind-body-practices/). Since IBS involves inflammation of the GI tract it is possible that yoga is effective for IBS by reducing bowel inflammation. Future research is needed to clarify and test these ideas.

 

Regardless, it is clear that practicing yoga can be very beneficial for the treatment of IBS in adults. Since, yoga practice is generally safe, with few if any side effects, is generally a healthful practice for both the body and mind, and can be implemented at low cost, it would appear to be an excellent choice for the treatment of IBS.

 

So, practice yoga to make Irritable Bowel Syndrome less irritating.

 

“You cannot always control what goes on outside. But you can always control what goes on inside.” – Mr. Yoga

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies