Improve the Psychological Well-Being of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease with Tai Chi

Improve the Psychological Well-Being of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease with Tai Chi

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Tai Chi involves a series of graceful, gentle movements that can get your heart rate up while also relaxing your mind. It’s been called meditation in motion.” – Cleveland Heart Lab

 

Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer. A myriad of treatments has been developed including a variety of surgical procedures and medications. In addition, lifestyle changes have proved to be effective including quitting smoking, weight reduction, improved diet, physical activity, and reducing stresses. Unfortunately, for a variety of reasons, 60% of cardiovascular disease patients decline engaging in these lifestyle changes, making these patients at high risk for another attack.

 

Contemplative practices have been shown to be safe and effective alternative treatments for cardiovascular disease. Practices such as meditation, tai chi, and yoga, have been shown to be helpful for heart health and to reduce the physiological and psychological responses to stress. They have also been shown to be effective in maintaining cardiovascular health and the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The research has been accumulating. So, it makes sense to pause and take a look at what has been learned.

 

In today’s Research News article “Does tai chi improve psychological well-being and quality of life in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or cardiovascular risk factors? A systematic review.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8725570/ ) Yang and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the published randomized controlled trials of the effectiveness of Tai Chi practice for patients with cardiovascular disease. They identified 37 published trials.

 

They report that the published research found that Tai Chi practiced improved the psychological well-being of the patients including decreases in perceived stress, anxiety, depression, bodily pain and increases in mental health, self-efficacy, and mood.

 

Hence practicing Tai Chi improves the mental health and quality of life of patients with cardiovascular disease.

 

practicing tai chi may help to modestly lower blood pressure. It’s also proved helpful for people with heart failure, who tend to be tired and weak as a result of the heart’s diminished pumping ability. The slow movements involve both the upper and lower body, which safely strengthens the heart and major muscle groups without undue strain.” – Harvard Health

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Yang, G., Li, W., Klupp, N., Cao, H., Liu, J., Bensoussan, A., Kiat, H., Karamacoska, D., & Chang, D. (2022). Does tai chi improve psychological well-being and quality of life in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or cardiovascular risk factors? A systematic review. BMC complementary medicine and therapies, 22(1), 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-021-03482-0

 

Abstract

Background

Psychological risk factors have been recognised as potential, modifiable risk factors in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Tai Chi, a mind-body exercise, has the potential to improve psychological well-being and quality of life. We aim to assess the effects and safety of Tai Chi on psychological well-being and quality of life in people with CVD and/or cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods

We searched for randomised controlled trials evaluating Tai Chi for psychological well-being and quality of life in people with CVD and cardiovascular risk factors, from major English and Chinese databases until 30 July 2021. Two authors independently conducted study selection and data extraction. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Review Manager software was used for meta-analysis.

Results

We included 37 studies (38 reports) involving 3525 participants in this review. The methodological quality of the included studies was generally poor. Positive effects of Tai Chi on stress, self-efficacy, and mood were found in several individual studies. Meta-analyses demonstrated favourable effects of Tai Chi plus usual care in reducing anxiety (SMD − 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): − 2.55, − 1.70, 3 studies, I2 = 60%) and depression (SMD -0.86, 95% CI: − 1.35, − 0.37, 6 studies, I2 = 88%), and improving mental health (MD 7.86, 95% CI: 5.20, 10.52, 11 studies, I2 = 71%) and bodily pain (MD 6.76, 95% CI: 4.13, 9.39, 11 studies, I2 = 75%) domains of the 36-Item Short Form Survey (scale from 0 to 100), compared with usual care alone. Tai Chi did not increase adverse events (RR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21, 1.20, 5 RCTs, I2 = 0%), compared with control group. However, less than 30% of included studies reported safety information.

Conclusions

Tai Chi seems to be beneficial in the management of anxiety, depression, and quality of life, and safe to practice in people with CVD and/or cardiovascular risk factors. Monitoring and reporting of safety information are highly recommended for future research. More well-designed studies are warranted to determine the effects and safety of Tai Chi on psychological well-being and quality of life in this population.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8725570/

Improve Motor Ability in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with Tai Chi

Improve Motor Ability in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with Tai Chi

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Tai chi, a balance-based exercise, has been shown to improve strength, balance, and physical function and to prevent falls in older adults. . . it may also improve axial symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, such as postural stability.” – Fuzhong Li

 

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is an incurable progressive degenerative disease of the central nervous system. The condition is caused by the death of nerve cells in the brain that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. There are around seven million people worldwide and one million people in the U.S. living with PD and about 60,000 people are diagnosed with PD every year. PD is associated with aging as most patients are diagnosed after age 50. In fact, it has been speculated that everyone would eventually develop PD if they lived long enough.

 

Its physical symptoms include resting tremor, slow movements, muscle rigidity, problems with posture and balance, loss of automatic movements, and slurring of speech. PD itself is not fatal but is often associated with related complications which can reduce life expectancy, such as falls, choking, and cardiovascular problems. PD also has psychological effects, especially cognitive decline, anxiety, and depression. Balance is a particular problem as it effects mobility and increases the likelihood of falls, restricting activity and reducing quality of life.

 

There are no cures for Parkinson’s Disease (PD) or even treatments to slow its progression. There are only treatments that can produce symptomatic relief. So, there is a need to discover new and different treatments. Mindfulness training has been found to improve the psychological symptoms and the quality of life with PD patients.  In addition, combinations of mindfulness and exercise such as Tai Chi and yoga practices have been shown to improve the symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. The evidence is accumulating. So, it makes sense to step back and summarize what has been learned about the effectiveness of Tai Chi practice for the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease.

 

In today’s Research News article “The Impact of Tai Chi on Motor Function, Balance, and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814935/ ) Yu and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of Tai Chi practices for treatment of Parkinson’s Disease. They identified 17 randomized controlled trials containing a total of 951 patients with Parkinson’s Disease.

 

They report that the published research found that Tai Chi practice was safe and effective producing significant increases in the patient’s gait velocity, balance confidence, timed up and go, and balance. Hence, the published research found highly significant evidence that Tai Chi practice results in improvements in movements and balance in patients with Parkinson’s Disease.

 

The improvements in balance are reflected in the previous observations that Tai Chi practice reduces the likelihood of falls in the elderly and in patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Since, falls are a significant source of disability and even death, the improvement in balance alone justifies the recommendation of Tai Chi practice for patients with Parkinson’s Disease.

 

So, improve motor ability in Parkinson’s Disease patients with Tai Chi.

 

The incorporation of Tai Chi in the daily life of Parkinson’s disease patients allowed them to stay functionally and physically active.” – Alison Rodriguez

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are available on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Yu, X., Wu, X., Hou, G., Han, P., Jiang, L., & Guo, Q. (2021). The Impact of Tai Chi on Motor Function, Balance, and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2021, 6637612. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6637612

 

Abstract

Objective

Parkinson’s disease adversely affects function and quality of life, leading to increased mortality. The practice of Tai Chi has been associated with multifaceted improvements in health-related fitness. Considering the limited number of clinical studies included in previous reviews, inconsistent methodological quality, and inconclusive results, this meta-analysis aims to assess the effects of Tai Chi in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Method

Four English language databases and four Chinese databases were systematically searched for existing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Tai Chi in Parkinson’s disease from database inception through August 1, 2020. Methodological quality was appraised with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. A meta-analysis of comparative effects was performed using the Review Manager v.5.3 software.

Results

Seventeen published RCTs totaling 951 subjects were included. Results showed that Tai Chi has a statistically significant effect on the outcomes of gait velocity, unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS) motor score, activities-specific balance confidence (ABC) score, and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). The effects on the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) and Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) were not statistically significant.

Conclusions

This systematic review and meta-analysis of Parkinson’s disease and Tai Chi suggests Tai Chi is a relatively safe activity that can result in gains in general motor function and improve bradykinesia and balance. It has no statistically significant advantage for quality of life and functional mobility. Further randomized trials with larger sample sizes and of higher methodological quality are needed to confirm these results and to assess the feasibility of Tai Chi intervention for potential different clinical applications.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814935/

 

Improve Functional Fitness in the Elderly with Knee Osteoarthritis with Tai Chi

Improve Functional Fitness in the Elderly with Knee Osteoarthritis with Tai Chi

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“patients over 65 years of age with knee osteoarthritis (OA) who engage in regular Tai Chi exercise improve physical function and experience less pain.” – Science Daily

 

Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative joint disease that is the most common form of arthritis. It produces pain, swelling, and stiffness of the joints. It is the leading cause of disability in the U.S., with about 43% of arthritis sufferers limited in mobility and about a third having limitations that affect their ability to perform their work. Knee osteoarthritis effects 5% of adults over 25 years of age and 12% of those over 65. It is painful and disabling. Its causes are varied including, hereditary, injury including sports injuries, repetitive stress injuries, infection, or from being overweight.

 

There are no cures for knee osteoarthritis. Treatments are primarily symptomatic, including weight loss, exercise, braces, pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, arthroscopic knee surgery, or even knee replacement. Gentle movements of the joints with exercise and physical therapy appear to be helpful in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. This suggests that alternative and complementary practices that involve gentle knee movements may be useful for treatment.

 

Mindfulness practices such as Tai Chi and Qigong and yoga have been shown to reduce the physical symptoms of knee osteoarthritisTai Chi practice, has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for a wide variety of physical and psychological conditions, including arthritis. Much of the research involves controlled laboratory studies. It needs to be demonstrated that Tai Chi practice is an effective treatment for knee osteoarthritis of the community-dwelling elderly.

 

In today’s Research News article “Impacts of tai chi exercise on functional fitness in community-dwelling older adults with mild degenerative knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325845/ ) Chen and colleagues recruited a sample of community-dwelling otherwise healthy elderly (age >65 years) individuals diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. They were randomly assigned them to a 60 minutes twice a week for 12 week program of either health education or Sun style Tai Chi practice. They were measured before and after the 12-week practice period for functional fitness including the 30-s chair stand, 30-s arm curl, 2-min step, chair sit-and-reach, back-scratch flexibility, single-leg stand, functional reach, 8-foot up-and-go, and 10-m walk tests.

 

They found that in comparison to baseline and the health education group, the group that practiced Tai Chi  had significant improvements in the 30-s chair stand, 30-s arm curl, 2-min step, chair sit-and-reach, single-leg stand, functional reach, and 8-foot up-and-go. Hence, Tai Chi practice increases functional fitness in the community-dwelling elderly with knee osteoarthritis. This should translate in improved movement with less pain and increased quality of life in these community-dwelling elderly individuals.

 

So, improve functional fitness in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis with Tai Chi.

 

research shows an ancient form of exercise called Tai Chi might offer hope to combat arthritis pain in seniors.” – Julie Podewitz

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are available on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Chen, P. Y., Song, C. Y., Yen, H. Y., Lin, P. C., Chen, S. R., Lu, L. H., Tien, C. L., Wang, X. M., & Lin, C. H. (2021). Impacts of tai chi exercise on functional fitness in community-dwelling older adults with mild degenerative knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. BMC geriatrics, 21(1), 449. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02390-9

 

Abstract

Background

Degenerative osteoarthritis (OA) often leads to pain and stiffness of the affected joints, which may affect the physical performance and decrease the quality of life of people with degenerative knee OA. Compared to traditional exercise, tai chi is a safe exercise with slow movements which can facilitate physical functioning and psychological well being, and might be suitable for improving the physical activities of older adults with knee OA. Therefore, this study investigated the impacts of tai chi exercise on the functional fitness of community-dwelling older adults with degenerative knee OA.

Methods

Sixty-eight community-dwelling older adults with knee OA were recruited from the local community to participate in this randomized controlled clinical trial. All subjects were randomly assigned to either an TCE group that practiced tai chi exercise (TCE) (n = 36) or a control group (CON) (n = 32) that received regular health education programs twice per week for 12 weeks. Outcome measurements were determined using functional fitness tests before and after the intervention, including a 30-s chair stand (number of repeats), 30-s arm-curl (number of repeats), 2-min step (number of steps), chair sit-and-reach (reaching distance, cm), back-scratch flexibility (distance between hands, cm), single-leg stand (time, s), functional reach (reaching distance, cm), 8-foot up-and-go (time, s), and 10-m walk tests (time, s). Pre-post comparisons of functional fitness were analyzed using the ANCOVA test with SPSS software version 18.0.

Results

Results revealed that participants’ functional fitness in the TCE group had significantly higher adjusted mean post-tests scores than that in the CON group after the intervention, including the 8-foot up-and-go (s) (mean difference [MD]=-2.92 [-3.93, -1.91], p = 2.39*10− 7), 30-s arm curl (MD = 4.75 (2.76, 6.73), p = 1.11*10− 5), 2-min step (MD = 36.94 [23.53, 50.36], p = 7.08*10− 7), 30-s chair stand (MD = 4.66 [2.97, 6.36], p = 6.96*10− 7), functional-reach (MD = 5.86 [3.52, 8.20], p = 4.72*10− 6), single-leg stand with eyes closed (MD = 3.44 [1.92, 4.97], p = 2.74*10− 5), chair sit-and-reach (MD = 3.93 [1.72, 6.15], p = 0.001), and single-leg stand with eyes opened (MD = 17.07 [6.29, 27.85], p = 0.002), with large effect sizes (η²=0.14 ~ 0.34).

Conclusions

Community-dwelling older adults with knee OA in the TCE group had better functional fitness performances after the 12-week tai chi intervention than those receiving only health education.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325845/

 

Improve Physical Ability, Balance, and Flexibility with Tai Chi

Improve Physical Ability, Balance, and Flexibility with Tai Chi

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Tai Chi is a relatively safe activity that can result in gains in general motor function and improve bradykinesia and balance. “ – Xiny Yu

 

Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese practice involving mindfulness and gentle movements. It is easy to learn, safe, and gentle. Tai Chi has been practiced for thousands of years with benefits for health and longevityTai Chi training is designed to enhance function and regulate the activities of the body through controlled breathing, mindful concentration, and gentle movements. Only recently though have the physical and motor effects of this practice been scrutinized with empirical research. The findings have been accumulating. So, it makes sense to summarize what has been learned.

 

In today’s Research News article “Effect of Tai Chi on muscle strength, physical endurance, postural balance and flexibility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871341/ ) Wehner and colleagues review, summarize and perform a meta-analysis of the published research findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the effects of Tai Chi training on physical ability, strength, balance, and flexibility. They identified 31 published randomized controlled trials that included mostly participants over 60 years of age.

 

They report that the published research found that Tai Chi practice produce a significant increase in hand grip strength, timed walking distance, postural balance, and spine flexibility. These findings suggest that engaging in Tai Chi practice results in improved health-related fitness. This is particularly important for aging individuals where physical decline is inevitable and suggests an increased health-related quality of life. The improvements in balance are important as they signal a decreased likelihood of falls which are very dangerous for the elderly.

 

So, improve physical ability, balance, and flexibility with Tai Chi.

 

our main finding suggests a statistically significant general improvement in motor efficiency for the TC group.” – Luisa Sartori

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are available on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Wehner, C., Blank, C., Arvandi, M., Wehner, C., & Schobersberger, W. (2021). Effect of Tai Chi on muscle strength, physical endurance, postural balance and flexibility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ open sport & exercise medicine, 7(1), e000817. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000817

 

What is already known?

  • Tai Chi training has positive effects on a variety of chronic diseases (eg, osteoarthritis) and health-related issues (eg, reduced risk of falling).
  • Tai Chi training exerts a positive impact not only on physical parameters, but also on mental health.
  • There is good evidence for positive effects of Tai Chi training for older people and patient populations, as most previous studies concentrated on these populations.

What are the new findings?

  • There is evidence that Tai Chi training can also moderately improve physical fitness as measured by tests commonly applied in health-related fitness or competitive sports contexts; for healthy people such tests are more relevant compared with the clinical assessment tools used for unfit and patient populations. Improvements were observed in handgrip strength, functional capacity, postural balance and thoracolumbar flexibility.
  • We hypothesise that not only slow motions of the legs and kicking movements while standing on one leg, which are characteristic in Tai Chi but also the improvement of thoracolumbar flexibility enhance postural balance.

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the impact of Tai Chi training on muscle strength, physical endurance, postural balance and flexibility, as measured by tests commonly used in health-related fitness or competitive sports contexts.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data sources

The following databases were searched up to 31 July 2020: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE via PubMed and SPORTDiscus.

Eligibility criteria for studies

Inclusion: (1) Randomised controlled trials published in German or English; (2) Tai Chi used as an intervention to improve physical performance; (3) Test methods commonly used in health-related fitness or competitive sports and (4) Participants aged ≥16 years (irrespective of health status). Exclusion: (1) Studies not focusing on Tai Chi or including Tai Chi mixed with other interventions and (2) Modified or less than eight Tai Chi movements.

Results

Out of 3817 records, 31 studies were included in the review, 21 of them in the meta-analysis. Significant improvements in handgrip strength (2.34 kg, 95% CI 1.53 to 3.14), walking distance during 6 min (43.37 m, 95% CI 29.12 to 57.63), standing time in single-leg-stance with open eyes (6.41 s, 95% CI 4.58 to 8.24) and thoracolumbar spine flexibility (2.33 cm, 95% CI 0.11 to 4.55) were observed.

Conclusion

Tai Chi training seems to moderately improve physical fitness when evaluated by tests used in health-related fitness or competitive sports. Moreover, thoracolumbar spine flexibility seems to be a factor in the improvement of postural balance. Further research is needed, including younger healthy participants performing a widely used, standardised form (eg, Peking-style routine) with high-intensity movements (eg, use of lower stances).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871341/

 

Improve Adolescent Psychological Well-Being with Tai Chi or Qigong

Improve Adolescent Psychological Well-Being with Tai Chi or Qigong

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Qigong was able to improve attention in adolescents after 4 weeks of practice, leading us to conclude that it may be a useful tool when integrated into physical education classes.” – Leonel Duarte

 

Adolescence is a time of mental, physical, social, and emotional growth. It is during this time that higher levels of thinking, sometimes called executive function, develops. But adolescence can be a difficult time, fraught with challenges. During this time the child transitions to young adulthood; including the development of intellectual, psychological, physical, and social abilities and characteristics. There are so many changes occurring during this time that the child can feel overwhelmed and unable to cope with all that is required. This can lead to emotional and behavioral problems.

 

Indeed, up to a quarter of adolescents suffer from depression or anxiety disorders, and an even larger proportion struggle with subclinical symptoms. Mindfulness training in adults has been shown to reduce anxiety and depression levels and improve resilience and emotional regulation. In addition, in adolescents it has been shown to improve emotion regulation and to benefit the psychological and emotional health.

 

Tai Chi and Qigong are ancient mindfulness practices involving slow prescribed movements. They are gentle and completely safe, are inexpensive to administer, can be performed in groups or alone, at home or in a facility or even public park. There has been accumulating research on the effects of Tai Chi and Qigong training on the psychological well-being of adolescents. So, it makes sense to summarize what has been learned.

 

In today’s Research News article “The Effects of Tai Chi and Qigong Exercise on Psychological Status in Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.746975/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1784429_a0P58000000G0YfEAK_Psycho_20211202_arts_A  ) Liu and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the published controlled research studies effects of Tai Chi and Qigong training on the psychological well-being of adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years).

 

They identified 10 published research studies with a total of 1244 participants. They report that the published research studies found that Tai Chi or Qigong practice produced significant reductions in anxiety, depression, and blood cortisol levels (stress marker) and significant improvements in self-concept and general mental health. Adolescence is a turbulent and stressful time. The published research suggests that practicing Tai Chi or Qigong helps reduce the mental turbulence and may help the youths navigate adolescence and in their transition to adulthood.

 

So, improve adolescent psychological well-being with Tai Chi or Qigong.

 

Teens . . . who had taken the Tai Chi Chuan classes showed markedly less stress and psychological distress and enjoyed a much better self-image.” – Jeff Paterson

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are available on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Liu X, Li R, Cui J, Liu F, Smith L, Chen X and Zhang D (2021) The Effects of Tai Chi and Qigong Exercise on Psychological Status in Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front. Psychol. 12:746975. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.746975

 

Background: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effectiveness of Tai Chi and Qigong exercise on adolescents’ symptoms of depression and anxiety, and psychological status based on clinical evidences, and to calculate the pooled results using meta-analysis.

Methods: A systematic search using seven English and three Chinese databases was initiated to identify randomized controlled trials (RCT) and non-randomized comparison studies (NRS) assessing the effect of Tai Chi and Qigong exercise on psychological status among adolescents. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to determine the pooled effect of the intervention. Study quality was evaluated using a Checklist to Evaluate a Report of a Non-pharmacological Trial (CLEAR-NPT) designed for non-pharmacological trials.

Results: Four RCTs and six NRS were identified, including 1,244 adolescents. The results suggested a potential beneficial effect of Tai chi and Qigong exercise on reducing anxiety (SMD = 0.386, 95 CI% [0.233, 0.538]) and depression (SMD = 1.937 [95 CI%, 1.392–2.546]) symptoms, and reducing cortisol level (SMD = 0.621 [95 CI%, 0.18–1.062]) in adolescents. Conversely, non-significant effects were found for stress, mood, and self-esteem.

Conclusions: The findings of this review suggest Qigong appears to be an effective therapeutic modality to improve psychological well-being in adolescents. Hope future studies will have rigorously designed, well-controlled randomized trials with large sample sizes in order to confirm these findings.

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.746975/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1784429_a0P58000000G0YfEAK_Psycho_20211202_arts_A

 

Reduce Fatigue and Improve Sleep in Cancer Survivors with Tai Chi

Reduce Fatigue and Improve Sleep in Cancer Survivors with Tai Chi

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“tai chi may help to increase strength, balance, flexibility, heart and lung function, feelings of well-being” – BreastCancer.org

 

Receiving a diagnosis of cancer has a huge impact on most people. Feelings of depression, anxiety, and fear are very common and are normal responses to this life-changing and potentially life-ending experience. But cancer diagnosis is not necessarily a death sentence. Over half of the people diagnosed with cancer are still alive 10 years later and this number is rapidly increasing. But surviving cancer carries with it a number of problems. Anxiety, depression, fatigue, and insomnia are common symptoms in the aftermath of surviving breast cancer. These symptoms markedly reduce the quality of life of the patients.

 

Mindfulness training has been shown to help with cancer recovery and help to alleviate many of the residual physical and psychological symptoms, including stress,  sleep disturbance, and anxiety and depressionTai Chi or Qigong practice has been shown to improve quality of life, reduce fatigue, and lower blood pressure and cortisol levels. They are very gentle and safe practices. The research on the effectiveness of Tai Chi training for cancer patients is accumulating. So, it makes sense to take a step back and summarize what has been learned.

 

In today’s Research News article “Tai Chi for cancer survivors: A systematic review toward consensus-based guidelines.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8559497/ ) Yang and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the published randomized controlled clinical trials of the effectiveness of Tai Chi training for the well-being of cancer survivors. They identified 26 published studies.

 

They report that the published research found that 8 to 12 weeks of Tai Chi practice produce significant decreases in fatigue and increases in sleep quality in cancer patients. The published studies were generally of low methodological quality and small number of patients. So, there is a need for future studies employing high quality methodologies with large groups. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to conclude that Tai Chi practice is beneficial for cancer survivors reducing fatigue and improving sleep.

 

So, reduce fatigue and improve sleep in cancer survivors with Tai Chi.

 

participation in Tai Chi had a positive influence on quality of life and psychological health for cancer survivors.” – Catherine Stifter

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are available on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Yang, L., Winters-Stone, K., Rana, B., Cao, C., Carlson, L. E., Courneya, K. S., Friedenreich, C. M., & Schmitz, K. H. (2021). Tai Chi for cancer survivors: A systematic review toward consensus-based guidelines. Cancer medicine, 10(21), 7447–7456. https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4273

 

Abstract

To manage acute, long‐term, and late effects of cancer, current guidelines recommend moderate‐to‐vigorous intensity aerobic and resistance exercise. Unfortunately, not all cancer survivors are able or willing to perform higher intensity exercise during difficult cancer treatments or because of other existing health conditions. Tai Chi is an equipment‐free, multicomponent mind–body exercise performed at light‐to‐moderate intensity that may provide a more feasible alternative to traditional exercise programs for some cancer survivors. This systematic review evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of Tai Chi across the cancer care continuum. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, and CINAHL databases for interventional studies from inception to 18 September 2020. Controlled trials of the effects of Tai Chi training on patient‐reported and objectively measured outcomes in cancer survivors were included. Study quality was determined by the RoB 2 tool, and effect estimates were evaluated using the Best Evidence Synthesis approach. Twenty‐six reports from 14 trials (one non‐randomized controlled trial) conducted during (n = 5) and after treatment (after surgery: n = 2; after other treatments: n = 7) were included. Low‐level evidence emerged to support the benefits of 40–60 min of thrice‐weekly supervised Tai Chi for 8–12 weeks to improve fatigue and sleep quality in cancer survivors. These findings need to be confirmed in larger trials and tested for scaling‐up potential. Insufficient evidence was available to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi on other cancer‐related outcomes. Future research should examine whether Tai Chi training can improve a broader range of cancer outcomes including during the pre‐treatment and end of life phases.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8559497/

 

Increase Physiological and Psychological Activation and Calmness with Qigong

Increase Physiological and Psychological Activation and Calmness with Qigong

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

regular [qigong] practice may help improve your balance, ease stress and anxiety, sharpen focus, and reduce your risk of chronic disease.” – Saundra Montijo

 

Qigong has been practiced for thousands of years with benefits for health and longevityQigong training is designed to enhance function and regulate the activities of the body through regulated breathing, mindful concentration, and gentle movements. Only recently though have the effects of these practices been scrutinized with empirical research. This research has found that they are effective for an array of physical and psychological issues.

 

In today’s Research News article “Relaxation or Regulation: The Acute Effect of Mind-Body Exercise on Heart Rate Variability and Subjective State in Experienced Qi Gong Practitioners.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208883/ ) Goldbeck and colleagues recruited experienced adult Qigong practitioners and measured their heat rate variability with the electrocardiogram (ECG) while at rest, during 2 10-minute sessions of qigong practice, and at rest again. Before and after the practices they completed measures of vitality, calmness, deep relaxation, meditative focus, and heightened body awareness.

 

They found that after the 10-minute qigong practices there were significant increases in vitality, calmness, pleasant body sensation, focused attention, body awareness, and perceived body activation. In addition, during the qigong sessions there was a significant decrease in heart rate variability. A decrease in heart rate variability is indicative of increased physiological activation (sympathetic nervous system activation).

 

The results are interesting and suggest that experienced qigong practitioners experience increases in both psychological and physiological activation in association with feelings of calmness during engagement in the practice. The physiological arousal is suggestive of the aerobic exercise component of qigong. It is interesting that calmness increased in synchrony with increased vitality and perceived body activation. This is suggestive of a state of “eutonic calmness” wherein activity is associated with pleasant calm feelings which has been postulated to be characteristic of mind-body exercises.

 

So, increase physiological and psychological activation and calmness with qigong.

 

a little bit of regular practice, Qigong can have a powerful effect on mind, body and spirit. Reported benefits have included increased general health and well being, reduced levels of stress, and a brighter and more balanced outlook on life’s possibilities.” – Mei Quan

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are available on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Goldbeck, F., Xie, Y. L., Hautzinger, M., Fallgatter, A. J., Sudeck, G., & Ehlis, A. C. (2021). Relaxation or Regulation: The Acute Effect of Mind-Body Exercise on Heart Rate Variability and Subjective State in Experienced Qi Gong Practitioners. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2021, 6673190. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6673190

 

Abstract

Mind-body exercises such as Yoga or Qi Gong have demonstrated a wide range of health benefits and hold great promise for employment in clinical practice. However, the psychophysiological mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Theoretical frameworks highlight regulation as a characteristic and specific mechanism of mind-body exercise for which empirical evidence is scarce. To investigate the exact nature of this mechanism, we tracked acute changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and subjective state over a common form of mind-body exercise (Qi Gong). Heart rate variability (HRV) and subjective state were assessed in 42 Qi Gong practitioners from China and Germany during a standard moving Qi Gong exercise (Baduanjin). Relaxation in supine position prior and after the exercise served as a control condition to Qi Gong and to assess changes before and after the exercise. Following Qi Gong, all practitioners reported significantly increased subjective calmness and perceived body activation, attentional focus, and subjective vitality. On the physiological level, a significant decrease of parasympathetic modulation and increase in heart rate indicated a pattern of moderate general physiological activation during Qi Gong. A significant increase in overall RR-interval modulation and cardiac coherence during Qi Gong were indicative of a mechanism of active regulation. Examination of the RR-interval trajectories revealed a rhythmic pattern of ANS activation and deactivation in sync with activating and relaxing segments of the exercise. Significant changes in subjective state, not on the physiological level, before and after the exercise were observed. Significant associations between Qi-Gong-specific beliefs, age, cultural background, and experiential and physiological measures demonstrated the complexity of mind-body exercises as multicomponent interventions. Overall, this study highlights moderate general physiological activation, exercise-dependent rhythmic ANS modulation, and induction of a characteristic state of eutonic calmness as potential psychophysiological mechanisms underlying the health benefits of mind-body exercise.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208883/

 

Improve Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) with Tai Chi

Improve Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) with Tai Chi

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

tai chi can help people with COPD boost their ability to walk and do other types of exercise, as well as improve their quality of life.” – Harvard Health

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) are progressive lung diseases that obstruct airflow. The two main types of COPD are chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD is very serious being the third leading cause of death in the United States, over 140,000 deaths per year and the number of people dying from COPD is growing. More than 11 million people have been diagnosed with COPD, but an estimated 24 million may have the disease without even knowing it. COPD causes serious long-term disability and early death.

 

There is no cure for COPD. Treatments include lifestyle changes, medicine, bronchodilators, steroids, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy, and surgery. They all attempt to relieve symptoms, slow the progress of the disease, improve exercise tolerance, prevent and treat complications, and improve overall health. Gentle mind-body exercise such as Tai Chi and Qigong practices have been found to improve COPD symptoms. The evidence is accumulating. So, it makes sense to examine what has been learned.

 

In today’s Research News article “Tai Chi for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504989/ ) Ngai and colleagues review, summarize and perform  a meta-analysis of the published research studies of the effectiveness of Tai Chi practice for the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD).They identified 12 published studies that included a total of 984 participants.

 

They report that the published research did not find any adverse events from Tai Chi practice. They found that in comparison to no-treatment or to usual care Tai Chi practice significantly improved pulmonary function and produced better walking performance. Some inconclusive evidence was available that Tai Chi lessened shortness of breath and improved quality of life. But when compared to other interventions there was no significant differences.

 

These results are interesting and suggest that Tai Chi practice is effective in improving the symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). But it is not superior to other treatments. Tai Chi practice, however, is not strenuous, involves slow gentle movements, and is safe, having no appreciable side effects, it is appropriate the elderly. It can also be practiced without professional supervision and in groups making it inexpensive to deliver and fun to engage in. These advantages make Tai Chi practice an excellent choice in the treatment of COPD.

 

So, improve chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with tai chi.

 

after 12 weeks, researchers saw surprising differences . . .  favoring tai chi, in breathlessness (dyspnea) scores, and in exercise capacity . . . We conclude that tai chi is equivalent to PR [pulmonary rehabilitation] and may confer more sustained benefit,” – Patricia Silva

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

Study Summary

 

Ngai, S. P., Jones, A. Y., & Tam, W. W. (2016). Tai Chi for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2016(6), CD009953. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009953.pub2

Abstract

Background

Tai Chi, a systematic callisthenic exercise first developed in ancient China, involves a series of slow and rhythmic circular motions. It emphasises use of ‘mind’ or concentration to control breathing and circular body motions to facilitate flow of internal energy (i.e. ‘qi’) within the body. Normal flow of ‘qi’ is believed to be essential to sustain body homeostasis, ultimately leading to longevity. The effect of Tai Chi on balance and muscle strength in the elderly population has been reported; however, the effect of Tai Chi on dyspnoea, exercise capacity, pulmonary function and psychosocial status among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear.

Selection criteria

We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Tai Chi (Tai Chi alone or Tai Chi in addition to another intervention) versus control (usual care or another intervention identical to that used in the Tai Chi group) in people with COPD. Two independent review authors screened and selected studies.

Data collection and analysis

Two independent review authors extracted data from included studies and assessed risk of bias on the basis of suggested criteria listed in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We extracted post‐programme data and entered them into RevMan software (version 5.3) for data synthesis and analysis.

Main results

We included a total of 984 participants from 12 studies (23 references) in this analysis. We included only those involved in Tai Chi and the control group (i.e. 811 participants) in the final analysis. Study sample size ranged from 10 to 206, and mean age ranged from 61 to 74 years. Programmes lasted for six weeks to one year. All included studies were RCTs; three studies used allocation concealment, six reported blinded outcome assessors and three studies adopted an intention‐to‐treat approach to statistical analysis. No adverse events were reported. Quality of evidence of the outcomes ranged from very low to moderate.

Analysis was split into three comparisons: (1) Tai Chi versus usual care; (2) Tai Chi and breathing exercise versus breathing exercise alone; and (3) Tai Chi and exercise versus exercise alone.

Comparison of Tai Chi versus usual care revealed that Tai Chi demonstrated a longer six‐minute walk distance (mean difference (MD) 29.64 metres, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.52 to 48.77 metres; participants = 318; I2 = 59%) and better pulmonary function (i.e. forced expiratory volume in one second, MD 0.11 L, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.20 L; participants = 258; I2 = 0%) in post‐programme data. However, the effects of Tai Chi in reducing dyspnoea level and improving quality of life remain inconclusive. Data are currently insufficient for evaluating the impact of Tai Chi on maximal exercise capacity, balance and muscle strength in people with COPD. Comparison of Tai Chi and other interventions (i.e. breathing exercise or exercise) versus other interventions shows no superiority and no additional effects on symptom improvement nor on physical and psychosocial outcomes with Tai Chi.

Authors’ conclusions

No adverse events were reported, implying that Tai Chi is safe to practise in people with COPD. Evidence of very low to moderate quality suggests better functional capacity and pulmonary function in post‐programme data for Tai Chi versus usual care. When Tai Chi in addition to other interventions was compared with other interventions alone, Tai Chi did not show superiority and showed no additional effects on symptoms nor on physical and psychosocial function improvement in people with COPD. With the diverse style and number of forms being adopted in different studies, the most beneficial protocol of Tai Chi style and number of forms could not be commented upon. Hence, future studies are warranted to address these topics.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504989/

 

Reduce Depression in Older Adults with Mind-Body Practices and Exercise

Reduce Depression in Older Adults with Mind-Body Practices and Exercise

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Complementary use of mindful exercise, such as Tai Chi and yogic meditation, can improve clinical outcomes of mood disorders in older adults-as demonstrated in brain scans, biomarkers of cellular aging, and mental health rating scales.” – Arline Kaplan

 

The aging process involves a systematic progressive decline in every system in the body, the brain included. This includes our cognitive (mental) abilities and mood. It is inevitable and cannot be avoided. There is some hope for age related decline, however, as there is evidence that it can be slowed. There are some indications that physical and mental exercise can reduce the rate of decline. For example, contemplative practices such as meditation, yoga, and Tai Chi or qigong have all been shown to be beneficial in slowing or delaying physical and mental decline with aging and with improving depression. The research has been accumulating. So, it makes sense to pause and review and summarize what has been learned.

 

In today’s Research News article “Aerobic, resistance, and mind-body exercise are equivalent to mitigate symptoms of depression in older adults: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191520/ ) Miller and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the published randomized controlled trials of the effectiveness of mind-body practices, aerobic exercise, and resistance exercise on depression in older adults (over 65 years of age). They identified 69 published research studies including a total of 5,379 elderly participants.

 

They report that the published research found that in comparison to usual care, wait-list controls, or attention controls that mind-body practices, aerobic exercise, and resistance exercise all significantly reduced depression in the elderly participants. Although no significant differences were found between the practices, on average, the effectiveness of the practices were rank ordered mind-body practices followed by aerobic exercise followed by resistance exercise.

 

All three practices involve exercise. Mind-body practices include yoga, Tai Chi, and Qigong all of which provide gentle mild exercise intensity. Aerobic exercise on the other hand provides moderate intensity exercise. This suggests that the intensity of exercise is not important for the relief of depression. What does appear to be important is that exercise be incorporated into the activities of the elderly to raise mood and reduce depression. Hence, the results suggest that the depression that is common in the elderly can be ameliorated with exercise.

 

So, reduce depression in older adults with mind-body practices and exercise.

 

Higher physical activity levels among older adults in particular may have a preventive effect on the development of depression.36 Recent findings point to the potential efficacy of exercise as a treatment of depression in older adults, in some cases with similar efficacy to antidepressants.” – Maren Nyer

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Miller, K. J., Areerob, P., Hennessy, D., Gonçalves-Bradley, D. C., Mesagno, C., & Grace, F. (2020). Aerobic, resistance, and mind-body exercise are equivalent to mitigate symptoms of depression in older adults: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. F1000Research, 9, 1325. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.27123.2

 

Abstract

Background: Exercise has been identified as an allied health strategy that can support the management of depression in older adults, yet the relative effectiveness for different exercise modalities is unknown. To meet this gap in knowledge, we present a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to examine the head-to-head effectiveness of aerobic, resistance, and mind-body exercise to mitigate depressive symptoms in adults aged ≥ 65 years.

Methods: A PRISMA-NMA compliant review was undertaken on RCTs from inception to September 12 th, 2019. PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus were systematically searched for eligible RCTs enrolling adults with a mean age ≥ 65 years, comparing one or more exercise intervention arms, and which used valid measures of depressive symptomology. Comparative effectiveness was evaluated using network meta-analysis to combine direct and indirect evidence, controlling for inherent variation in trial control groups.

Results: The systematic review included 82 RCTs, with 69 meeting eligibility for the network meta-analysis ( n = 5,379 participants). Pooled analysis found each exercise type to be effective compared with controls (Hedges’ g = -0.27 to -0.51). Relative head-to-head comparisons were statistically comparable between exercise types: resistance versus aerobic (Hedges’ g = -0.06, PrI = -0.91, 0.79), mind-body versus aerobic (Hedges’ g = -0.12, PrI = -0.95, 0.72), mind-body versus resistance (Hedges’ g = -0.06, PrI = -0.90, 0.79). High levels of compliance were demonstrated for each exercise treatment.

Conclusions: Aerobic, resistance, and mind-body exercise demonstrate equivalence to mitigate symptoms of depression in older adults aged ≥ 65 years, with comparably encouraging levels of compliance to exercise treatment. These findings coalesce with previous findings in clinically depressed older adults to encourage personal preference when prescribing exercise for depressive symptoms in older adults.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191520/

 

Relieve Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients with Mind-Body Exercise

Relieve Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients with Mind-Body Exercise

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

mindfulness has both direct and indirect effects on the fatigue of breast cancer survivors and that mindfulness can be used to more effectively reduce their fatigue.” – Kaori Ikeuchi

 

Receiving a diagnosis of breast cancer has a huge impact on most people. Feelings of depression, anxiety, and fear are very common and are normal responses to this life-changing and potentially life-ending experience. But breast cancer diagnosis is not necessarily a death sentence. Over half of the people diagnosed with breast cancer are still alive 10 years later and this number is rapidly increasing. But surviving breast cancer carries with it a number of problems. Anxiety, depression, fatigue and insomnia are common symptoms in the aftermath of surviving breast cancer. These symptoms markedly reduce the quality of life of the patients.

 

Mindfulness training has been shown to help with cancer recovery and help to relieve chronic pain. It can also help treat the residual physical and psychological symptoms, including stress, sleep disturbancefear, and anxiety and depression. Mind-body practices such as Tai Chi or Qigong, and yoga have been shown to be effective in improving the psychological symptoms occurring in breast cancer patients. The research has been accumulating. So, it makes sense to review and summarize what has been learned.

 

In today’s Research News article “A Meta-Analysis: Intervention Effect of Mind-Body Exercise on Relieving Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275388/ ) Liu and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the published randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of mind-body practices in relieving the chronic fatigue that occurs in breast cancer survivors. They identified 17 published randomized controlled trials that included a total of 1133 breast cancer patient. The mind-body practices employed in the published trials were yoga, Tai Chi, and Qigon.

 

They report that the published research found that mind-body practices significantly reduced the fatigue of patients with breast cancer. They further found that Tai Chi practice produced significantly greater reductions in fatigue than yoga practice and that practicing for over 40 minutes duration produces greater reductions in fatigue than shorter practice durations. Hence, the published research to date suggests that practicing yoga and particularly Tai Chi can successfully reduce cancer-related fatigue in patients with breast cancer. This is important as fatigue greatly interferes with the quality of life of the patients and their ability to reengage in normal daily activities. Mind-body practices, then, can improve the lives of breast cancer patients.

 

So, relieve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients with mind-body exercise.

 

Mindfulness-and in particular nonreactivity, nonjudging, and describing-may be a personal resource for women with metastatic breast cancer in coping with complex symptoms of this life-threatening illness.” – Lauren A Zimmaro

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Liu, C., Qin, M., Zheng, X., Chen, R., & Zhu, J. (2021). A Meta-Analysis: Intervention Effect of Mind-Body Exercise on Relieving Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2021, 9980940. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9980940

 

Abstract

Objective

This paper aims to systematically evaluate the intervention effect of mind-body exercise on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients.

Methods

Databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang Data, and SINOMED were retrieved to collect randomized controlled trials on the effects of mind-body exercise on relieving cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients. The retrieval period started from the founding date of each database to January 6, 2021. Cochrane bias risk assessment tools were used to evaluate the methodological quality assessment of the included literature, and RevMan 5.3 software was used for meta-analyses.

Results

17 pieces of researches in 16 papers were included with a total of 1133 patients. Compared with the control group, mind-body exercise can improve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients. The combined effect size SMD = 0.59, 95% CI was [0.27, 0.92], p < 0.00001. Doing Tai Chi for over 40 minutes each time with an exercise cycle of ≤6 weeks can improve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients more significantly. Sensitivity analysis shows that the combined effect results of the meta-analysis were relatively stable.

Conclusion

Mind-body exercise can effectively improve cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275388/