Improve Adolescent Social Behavior with Mindfulness

Improve Adolescent Social Behavior with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“mindfulness might help reduce adolescents’ psychological distress through reducing expressive suppression of emotion experiences.” – Ying Ma

 

Adolescence is a time of mental, physical, social, and emotional growth. It is during this time that higher levels of thinking, sometimes called executive function, develops. But adolescence can be a difficult time, fraught with challenges. During this time the child transitions to young adulthood; including the development of intellectual, psychological, physical, and social abilities and characteristics. There are so many changes occurring during this time that the child can feel overwhelmed and unable to cope with all that is required. This can lead to emotional and behavioral problems.

 

Indeed, up to a quarter of adolescents suffer from depression or anxiety disorders, and an even larger proportion struggle with subclinical symptoms. Mindfulness training in adults has been shown to reduce anxiety and depression levels and improve resilience and emotional regulation. In addition, in adolescents it has been shown to improve emotion regulation and to benefit the psychological and emotional health.

 

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) produces behavior change by focusing on changing the thoughts and emotions that precede problem behaviors, as well as by solving the problems faced by individuals that contribute to problematic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In DBT five core skills are practiced; mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, the middle path, and interpersonal effectiveness. It is likely, then that DBT would be effective in facilitating emotion regulation in adolescents.

 

In today’s Research News article “Preventing Emotional Dysregulation: Acceptability and Preliminary Effectiveness of a DBT Skills Training Program for Adolescents in the Spanish School System.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8744757/ ) Gasol and colleagues recruited high school students ages 12-15 years and provided them with 30 weekly 50 minute sessions of a modified version of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). They were measured before and after treatment for satisfaction with life, mental health difficulties and strengths, and emotion regulation.

 

This pilot study found that the program was well received and liked by the students. They also found that after training the adolescents had a significant decrease in peer problems and a significant increase in prosocial behavior. Many improvements in other measures were seen but were not statistically significant. This suggests that mindfulness training may be modestly helpful for improving the social function of adolescents. Since adolescence is a time of major social stress, the program may be useful in helping the teens navigate this difficult time. But more highly controlled studies are needed.

 

So, improve social behavior in adolescents with mindfulness.

 

mindfulness appears to be a protective individual difference characteristic during adolescence, and capacity for emotion regulation may be implicated in its effects on specific symptoms of psychopathology.” – Christopher Pepping

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Gasol, X., Navarro-Haro, M. V., Fernández-Felipe, I., García-Palacios, A., Suso-Ribera, C., & Gasol-Colomina, M. (2022). Preventing Emotional Dysregulation: Acceptability and Preliminary Effectiveness of a DBT Skills Training Program for Adolescents in the Spanish School System. International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(1), 494. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010494

 

Abstract

Emotional dysregulation is a key factor in the development and maintenance of multiple disabling mental disorders through a person’s lifespan. Therefore, there is an urgent need to prevent emotional dysregulation as early as possible. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of an adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training program for Emotional Problem Solving in Adolescents (DBT STEPS-A) during secondary school. The sample included 93 adolescents (mean age = 12.78; SD = 0.54; and 53% female) studying in their 2nd year of secondary school in a public center in Catalonia (Spain). Measures of acceptability, difficulties of emotional regulation, mental health problems, and life satisfaction were completed before and after participation in the DBT STEPS-A program during one academic year. The majority of students rated the program as useful (64%) and enjoyed the classes (62%) and 48% of them reported practicing the newly learned skills. Statistically significant improvements were revealed in some emotional regulation-related variables, namely the number of peer problems (p = 0.003; d = 0.52) and prosocial behaviors (p < 0.001; d = −0.82). Although non-significant, the scores in the remaining outcomes indicated a general positive trend in emotional dysregulation, mental health, and life satisfaction. The adapted DBT STEPS-A was very well-accepted and helped overcome some emotional regulation difficulties in Spanish adolescents.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8744757/

 

Improve Borderline Personality Disorder with Mindfulness

Improve Borderline Personality Disorder with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

DBT . . . is considered one of the best treatments for [Borderline Personality Disorder] in terms of documented success rates. . . [Borderline Personality Disorder] is effective in reducing psychiatric hospitalization, substance use, and suicidal behavior. . .  self-injurious behaviors, and the severity of borderline symptoms.” – Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault

 

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a very serious mental illness that is estimated to affect 1.6% of the U.S. population. It involves unstable moods, behavior, and relationships, problems with regulating emotions and thoughts, impulsive and reckless behavior, and unstable relationships. About ¾ of BPD patients engage in self-injurious behaviors.

 

One of the few treatments that appears to be effective for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). It is targeted at changing the problem behaviors characteristic of BPD including self-injury. Behavior change is accomplished through focusing on changing the thoughts and emotions that precede problem behaviors, as well as by solving the problems faced by individuals that contribute to problematic thoughts, feelings and behaviors. In DBT five core skills are practiced; mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, the middle path, and interpersonal effectiveness. The research regarding the effectiveness of DBT reduces for BPD patients has been accumulating. So, it makes sense to step back and summarize what has been learned.

 

In today’s Research News article “Psychological therapies for people with borderline personality disorder.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199382/ ) Storebø and colleagues review and summarize the published randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). for the treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). They found 25 randomized controlled trials.

 

They report that the published research found that Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) compared to treatment as usual, wait-list controls, and no-treatment produced significantly greater reductions in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) severity, self-harm, anger, impulsivity, dissociation, psychotic-like symptoms, and emotional instability and significantly greater increases in psychological functioning. There were no significant differences in adverse events between DBT and controls.

 

The published research clearly demonstrates that Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a safe and effective treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD).

 

“‘Dialectical’ means trying to understand how two things that seem opposite could both be true. For example, accepting yourself and changing your behaviour might feel contradictory. But DBT teaches that it’s possible for you to achieve both these goals together.” – Mind

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Storebø, O. J., Stoffers-Winterling, J. M., Völlm, B. A., Kongerslev, M. T., Mattivi, J. T., Jørgensen, M. S., Faltinsen, E., Todorovac, A., Sales, C. P., Callesen, H. E., Lieb, K., & Simonsen, E. (2020). Psychological therapies for people with borderline personality disorder. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 5(5), CD012955. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012955.pub2

 

Abstract

Background

Over the decades, a variety of psychological interventions for borderline personality disorder (BPD) have been developed. This review updates and replaces an earlier review (Stoffers‐Winterling 2012).

Objectives

To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of psychological therapies for people with BPD.

Search methods

In March 2019, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 14 other databases and four trials registers. We contacted researchers working in the field to ask for additional data from published and unpublished trials, and handsearched relevant journals. We did not restrict the search by year of publication, language or type of publication.

Selection criteria

Randomised controlled trials comparing different psychotherapeutic interventions with treatment‐as‐usual (TAU; which included various kinds of psychotherapy), waiting list, no treatment or active treatments in samples of all ages, in any setting, with a formal diagnosis of BPD. The primary outcomes were BPD symptom severity, self‐harm, suicide‐related outcomes, and psychosocial functioning. There were 11 secondary outcomes, including individual BPD symptoms, as well as attrition and adverse effects.

Data collection and analysis

At least two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data, assessed risk of bias using Cochrane’s ‘Risk of bias’ tool and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We performed data analysis using Review Manager 5 and quantified the statistical reliability of the data using Trial Sequential Analysis.

Main results

We included 75 randomised controlled trials (4507 participants), predominantly involving females with mean ages ranging from 14.8 to 45.7 years. More than 16 different kinds of psychotherapy were included, mostly dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) and mentalisation‐based treatment (MBT). The comparator interventions included treatment‐as‐usual (TAU), waiting list, and other active treatments. Treatment duration ranged from one to 36 months.

Psychotherapy versus TAU

Psychotherapy reduced BPD symptom severity, compared to TAU; standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.70 to −0.33; 22 trials, 1244 participants; moderate‐quality evidence. This corresponds to a mean difference (MD) of −3.6 (95% CI −4.4 to −2.08) on the Zanarini Rating Scale for BPD (range 0 to 36), a clinically relevant reduction in BPD symptom severity (minimal clinical relevant difference (MIREDIF) on this scale is −3.0 points).

Psychotherapy may be more effective at reducing self‐harm compared to TAU (SMD −0.32, 95% CI −0.49 to −0.14; 13 trials, 616 participants; low‐quality evidence), corresponding to a MD of −0.82 (95% CI −1.25 to 0.35) on the Deliberate Self‐Harm Inventory Scale (range 0 to 34). The MIREDIF of −1.25 points was not reached.

Suicide‐related outcomes improved compared to TAU (SMD −0.34, 95% CI −0.57 to −0.11; 13 trials, 666 participants; low‐quality evidence), corresponding to a MD of −0.11 (95% CI −0.19 to −0.034) on the Suicidal Attempt Self Injury Interview. The MIREDIF of −0.17 points was not reached.

Compared to TAU, psychotherapy may result in an improvement in psychosocial functioning (SMD −0.45, 95% CI −0.68 to −0.22; 22 trials, 1314 participants; low‐quality evidence), corresponding to a MD of −2.8 (95% CI −4.25 to −1.38), on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (range 0 to 100). The MIREDIF of −4.0 points was not reached.

Our additional Trial Sequential Analysis on all primary outcomes reaching significance found that the required information size was reached in all cases.

A subgroup analysis comparing the different types of psychotherapy compared to TAU showed no clear evidence of a difference for BPD severity and psychosocial functioning.

Psychotherapy may reduce depressive symptoms compared to TAU but the evidence is very uncertain (SMD −0.39, 95% CI −0.61 to −0.17; 22 trials, 1568 participants; very low‐quality evidence), corresponding to a MD of −2.45 points on the Hamilton Depression Scale (range 0 to 50). The MIREDIF of −3.0 points was not reached.

BPD‐specific psychotherapy did not reduce attrition compared with TAU. Adverse effects were unclear due to too few data.

Psychotherapy versus waiting list or no treatment

Greater improvements in BPD symptom severity (SMD −0.49, 95% CI −0.93 to −0.05; 3 trials, 161 participants), psychosocial functioning (SMD −0.56, 95% CI −1.01 to −0.11; 5 trials, 219 participants), and depression (SMD −1.28, 95% CI −2.21 to −0.34, 6 trials, 239 participants) were observed in participants receiving psychotherapy versus waiting list or no treatment (all low‐quality evidence). No evidence of a difference was found for self‐harm and suicide‐related outcomes.

Individual treatment approaches

DBT and MBT have the highest numbers of primary trials, with DBT as subject of one‐third of all included trials, followed by MBT with seven RCTs.

Compared to TAU, DBT was more effective at reducing BPD severity (SMD −0.60, 95% CI −1.05 to −0.14; 3 trials, 149 participants), self‐harm (SMD −0.28, 95% CI −0.48 to −0.07; 7 trials, 376 participants) and improving psychosocial functioning (SMD −0.36, 95% CI −0.69 to −0.03; 6 trials, 225 participants). MBT appears to be more effective than TAU at reducing self‐harm (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.80; 3 trials, 252 participants), suicidality (RR 0.10, 95% CI 0.04, 0.30, 3 trials, 218 participants) and depression (SMD −0.58, 95% CI −1.22 to 0.05, 4 trials, 333 participants). All findings are based on low‐quality evidence. For secondary outcomes see review text.

Authors’ conclusions

Our assessments showed beneficial effects on all primary outcomes in favour of BPD‐tailored psychotherapy compared with TAU. However, only the outcome of BPD severity reached the MIREDIF‐defined cut‐off for a clinically meaningful improvement. Subgroup analyses found no evidence of a difference in effect estimates between the different types of therapies (compared to TAU) .

The pooled analysis of psychotherapy versus waiting list or no treatment found significant improvement on BPD severity, psychosocial functioning and depression at end of treatment, but these findings were based on low‐quality evidence, and the true magnitude of these effects is uncertain. No clear evidence of difference was found for self‐harm and suicide‐related outcomes.

However, compared to TAU, we observed effects in favour of DBT for BPD severity, self‐harm and psychosocial functioning and, for MBT, on self‐harm and suicidality at end of treatment, but these were all based on low‐quality evidence. Therefore, we are unsure whether these effects would alter with the addition of more data.

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Plain language summary

Psychological therapies for people with borderline personality disorder

Background

People affected by borderline personality disorder (BPD) often have difficulties with controlling their impulses and emotions. They may have a poor self‐image, experience rapid changes in mood, harm themselves and find it hard to engage in harmonious interpersonal relationships. Different types of psychological treatments (‘talking treatments’) have been developed to help people with BPD. The effects of these treatments must be investigated to decide how well they work and if they can be harmful.

Objective

This review summarises what we currently know about the effect of psychotherapy in people with BPD.

Methods

We compared the effects of psychological treatments on people affected by BPD who did not receive treatment or who continued their usual treatment, were on a waiting list or received active treatment.

Findings

We searched for relevant research articles, and found 75 trials (4507 participants, mostly female, mean age ranging from 14.8 to 45.7 years). The trials examined a wide variety of psychological treatments (over 16 different types). They were mostly conducted in outpatient settings, and lasted between one and 36 months. Dialectical behaviour Therapy (DBT) and Mentalisation‐Based Treatment (MBT) were the therapies most studied.

Psychotherapy compared with usual treatment

Psychotherapy reduced the severity of BPD symptoms and suicidality and may reduce self‐harm and depression whilst also improving psychological functioning compared to usual treatment. DBT may be better than usual treatment at reducing BPD severity, self‐harm and improving psychosocial functioning. Similarly, MBT appears to be more effective than usual treatment at reducing self‐harm, suicidality and depression. However, these findings were all based on low‐quality evidence and therefore we are uncertain whether or not these results would change if we added more trials. Most trials did not report adverse effects, and those that did, found no obvious unwanted reactions following psychological treatment. The majority of trials (64 out of 75) were funded by grants from universities, authorities or research foundations. Four trials reported that no funding was received. For the remaining trials (7), funding was not specified.

Psychotherapy versus waiting list or no treatment

Psychotherapy was more effective than waiting list at improving BPD symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and depression, but there was no clear difference between psychotherapy, and waiting list for outcomes of self‐harm, and suicide‐related outcomes.

Conclusions

In general, psychotherapy may be more effective than usual treatment in reducing BPD symptom severity, self‐harm, suicide‐related outcomes and depression, whilst also improving psychosocial functioning. However, only the decrease in BPD symptom severity was found to be at a clinically important level. DBT appears to be better at reducing BPD severity, self‐harm, and improving psychosocial functioning compared to usual treatment and MBT appears more effective than usual treatment at reducing self‐harm and suicidality. However, we are still uncertain about these findings as the quality of the evidence is low.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199382/

 

Improve Eating Disorders with Dialectical Behavior Therapy

Improve Eating Disorders with Dialectical Behavior Therapy

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Dialectical behavioral therapy encourages change but also promotes acceptance. The term dialectic means that two opposite ideas can be correct at the same time. This is helpful for individuals in eating disorder treatment as most of these clients adopt an “all or nothing view”. The dialectical view appeals to many as they navigate recovery; they can accept their difficulties and work towards changing them.” – Discovery

 

Around 30 million people in the United States of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder: either anorexia nervosa, bulimia, or binge eating disorder. 95% of those who have eating disorders are between the ages of 12 and 26. Eating disorders are not just troubling psychological problems, they can be deadly, having the highest mortality rate of any mental illness. Binge eating disorder involves eating a large amount of food within a short time-period while experiencing a sense of loss of control over eating.

 

Eating disorders can be difficult to treat because eating is necessary and cannot be simply stopped as in smoking cessation or abstaining from drugs or alcohol. One must learn to eat appropriately not stop. So, it is important to find methods that can help prevent and treat eating disorders. Contemplative practices, mindfulness, and mindful eating have shown promise for treating eating disordersDialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) produces behavior change by focusing on changing the thoughts and emotions that precede problem behaviors, as well as by solving the problems faced by individuals that contribute to problematic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In DBT five core skills are practiced; mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, the middle path, and interpersonal effectiveness. It is likely, then that DBT is effective in treating eating sidorders.

 

There is accumulating evidence of the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for the treatment of eating disorders. So, it makes sense to review what has been learned. In today’s Research News article “.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470932/ ) Rozakou-Soumalia and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the published controlled research studies of the effectiveness of DBT in the treatment of eating disorders.

 

They identified 11 published studies, 10 of which were randomized controlled trials. They report that the published research found that Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) produced a significant increase in emotion regulation and a significant decrease in depression, body mass index, and the severity of eating disorders symptoms, including binge eating episodes.

 

These findings of the published research suggest that Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for eating disorders, reducing the severity of the symptoms. A core issue for patients with eating disorders is an inability to effectively deal with their emotions. The findings suggest that one way that DBT improves eating disorders is by increasing the patient’s ability to effectively regulate their emotions. Mindfulness training, which is contained in DBT has been shown in a wide range of research studies to improve emotion regulation and this may be the mechanism by which DBT improves eating disorders.

 

So, improve eating disorders with Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

 

DBT techniques equip eating disorder sufferers with methods for identifying triggers and improving responses to stress, (such as engaging in breathing and relaxation exercises), and applying mindful eating.” – Eating Disorders Hope

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Rozakou-Soumalia, N., Dârvariu, Ş., & Sjögren, J. M. (2021). Dialectical Behaviour Therapy Improves Emotion Dysregulation Mainly in Binge Eating Disorder and Bulimia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Personalized Medicine, 11(9), 931. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11090931

 

Abstract

Emotion dysregulation is a transdiagnostic phenomenon in Eating Disorders (ED), and Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) (which was developed for reducing dysregulated emotions in personality disorders) has been employed in patients with ED. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated whether the effect of DBT was stronger on emotion dysregulation, general psychopathology, and Body Mass Index (BMI) in participants with ED, when compared to a control group (active therapy and waitlist). Eleven studies were identified in a systematic search in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Most studies included participants with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) (n = 8), some with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) (n = 3), and only one with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The pooled effect of DBT indicated a greater improvement in Emotion Regulation (ER) (g = −0.69, p = 0.01), depressive symptoms (g = −0.33, p < 0.00001), ED psychopathology (MD = −0.90, p = 0.005), Objective Binge Episodes (OBE) (MD = −0.27, p = 0.003), and BMI (MD = −1.93, p = 0.01) compared to the control group. No improvement was detected in eating ER following DBT (p = 0.41). DBT demonstrated greater efficacy compared with the control group in improving emotion dysregulation, ED psychopathology, and BMI in ED. The limitations included the small number of studies and high variability.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470932/

 

Reduce Self-Harm and Suicidality in Adolescents with Mindfulness

Reduce Self-Harm and Suicidality in Adolescents with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“growing evidence supports DBT-A as a likely viable treatment intervention for adolescents who self-harm.” – Kimberly R. Freeman

 

Around 43,000 people take their own lives each year in the US. The problem is far worse than these statistics suggest as it has been estimated that for every completed suicide there were 12 unsuccessful attempts. In other words, about a half a million people in the U.S. attempt suicide each year. Indeed, suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescents.

 

Self-injury is a disturbing phenomenon occurring worldwide, especially in developed countries, such as the U.S. and those in western Europe. Approximately two million cases are reported annually in the U.S. Each year, 1 in 5 females and 1 in 7 males engage in self-injury usually starting in the teen years.

 

One of the few treatments that appears to be Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). It is targeted at changing the problem behaviors characteristic including self-injury. Behavior change is accomplished through focusing on changing the thoughts and emotions that precede problem behaviors, as well as by solving the problems faced by individuals that contribute to problematic thoughts, feelings and behaviors. In DBT five core skills are practiced; mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, the middle path, and interpersonal effectiveness. DBT has been found to reduce self-injurious behaviors. The data is accumulating so there is a need to review and summarize what has been found.

 

In today’s Research News article “Efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescent self-harm and suicidal ideation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188531/ ) Kothgassner and colleagues review, summarize, and perform a meta-analysis of the published research literature on the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for the treatment of self-harm and suicidality in adolescents.

 

They identified 21 published research studies encompassing 1673 adolescents. They report that the published research found that Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) resulted in significant reductions in self-harm and suicide ideation in the adolescents. They further found that the longer the duration of DBT treatment the greater the reductions in suicidal ideation.

 

This summary of the published research studies suggests that Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a safe and effective treatment for the reduction of self-harm and suicidal thoughts in adolescents. Since, suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescents and has increased substantially over the last decade, a treatment that can help reduce these rates is needed. The present results suggest that DBT with its associated training in mindfulness may be able to address this need.

 

So, reduce self-harm and suicidality in adolescents with mindfulness.

 

the DBT-A group experienced fewer episodes of self-harm. . . as well as statistically significant reductions in suicidal ideation and depression (both of which are risk factors for suicide).” – Suicide Prevention Resource Center

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Kothgassner, O. D., Goreis, A., Robinson, K., Huscsava, M. M., Schmahl, C., & Plener, P. L. (2021). Efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescent self-harm and suicidal ideation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological medicine, 51(7), 1057–1067. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721001355

 

Abstract

Background

Given the widespread nature and clinical consequences of self-harm and suicidal ideation among adolescents, establishing the efficacy of developmentally appropriate treatments that reduce both self-harm and suicidal ideation in the context of broader adolescent psychopathology is critical.

Methods

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the Dialectical Behaviour Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) literature on treating self-injury in adolescents (12–19 years). We searched for eligible trials and treatment evaluations published prior to July 2020 in MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases for clinical trials. Twenty-one studies were identified [five randomized-controlled trials (RCTs), three controlled clinical trials (CCTs), and 13 pre-post evaluations]. We extracted data for predefined primary (self-harm, suicidal ideation) and secondary outcomes (borderline personality symptoms; BPD) and calculated treatment effects for RCTs/CCTs and pre-post evaluations. This meta-analysis was pre-registered with OSF: osf.io/v83e7.

Results

Overall, the studies comprised 1673 adolescents. Compared to control groups, DBT-A showed small to moderate effects for reducing self-harm (g = −0.44; 95% CI −0.81 to −0.07) and suicidal ideation (g = −0.31, 95% CI −0.52 to −0.09). Pre-post evaluations suggested large effects for all outcomes (self-harm: g = −0.98, 95% CI −1.15 to −0.81; suicidal ideation: g = −1.16, 95% CI −1.51 to −0.80; BPD symptoms: g = −0.97, 95% CI −1.31 to −0.63).

Conclusions

DBT-A appears to be a valuable treatment in reducing both adolescent self-harm and suicidal ideation. However, evidence that DBT-A reduces BPD symptoms was only found in pre-post evaluations.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188531/

 

Effectively Treat Substance Use Disorder with Mindfulness

Effectively Treat Substance Use Disorder with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“mindfulness is likely an effective tool in helping people with addiction because it’s a single, simple skill that a person can practice multiple times throughout their day, every day, regardless of the life challenges that arise.” – James Davis

 

Substance abuse is a major health and social problem. There are estimated 22.2 million people in the U.S. with substance dependence. It is estimated that worldwide there are nearly ¼ million deaths yearly as a result of illicit drug use which includes unintentional overdoses, suicides, HIV and AIDS, and trauma. Obviously, there is a need to find effective methods to prevent and treat substance abuse. There are a number of programs that are successful at stopping the drug abuse, including the classic 12-step program emblematic of Alcoholics Anonymous. Unfortunately, the majority of drug and/or alcohol abusers relapse and return to substance abuse.

 

Hence, it is important to find an effective method to treat substance abuse and prevent relapse but an effective treatment has been elusive. Most programs and therapies to treat addictions have poor success rates. Recently, mindfulness training has been found to be effective in treating addictions. The research has been accumulating. So, it makes sense to pause and take a look at what has been learned.

 

In today’s Research News article “A Narrative Review of Third-Wave Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies in Addiction.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080172/ ) Balandeh and colleagues review and summarize the published research studies of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapies for the treatment of addictions.

 

They report that the published research demonstrates that the mindfulness-based therapies of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) are all effective for the treatment of addictions. These therapies vary greatly in emphasis and techniques. The major common thread is mindfulness training. This would suggest that it’s developing mindfulness per se that is effective in treating addictions.

 

They report that on a number of explanations for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapies for the treatment of addictions. These include the ability of mindfulness training to change the individual’s responses to the usual triggers for drug use, changing the brain’s response to cravings, and sensing cravings as just another physical sensation. Regardless of the mechanism or mechanisms, it is clear that mindfulness training is effective for the treatment of substance use disorder.

 

So, effectively treat substance use disorder with mindfulness.

 

One reason addiction is so hard to beat is that it’s a pattern of conditioned responses. The part of your brain responsible for higher reasoning essentially gets cut out of the decision-making process and you react reflexively to stimuli associated with drugs and alcohol. Practicing mindfulness gradually undoes this conditioning.” – Renewal Lodge

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Balandeh, E., Omidi, A., & Ghaderi, A. (2021). A Narrative Review of Third-Wave Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies in Addiction. Addiction & health, 13(1), 52–65. https://doi.org/10.22122/ahj.v13i1.298

 

Abstract

Substance use disorder (SUD) is a prevalent health issue with serious social and personal consequences. SUDs are linked to numerous physical health problems. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th Edition (DSM-V), the essential characteristic of a SUD is a collection of cognitive, behavioral, and psychological manifestations indicative of the subject’s unbaiting substance use despite experiencing significant problems due to continued use. Several alternative interventions have been indicated. Among them, mindfulness-based therapies are receiving growing attention. This article reviews evidence for the use of third-wave cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) in addiction treatment. We have reviewed the literature published from 1990 to 2019. Further research is required to better understand the types of mindfulness-based interventions that work best for specific types of addiction, patients, and situations. Current findings increasingly support third-wave CBTs as a promising complementary therapy for the treatment and prevention of addiction.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080172/

 

Reduce Self-Harm in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder with Mindfulness

Reduce Self-Harm in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Dialectical Behavior Therapy group skills training was associated with a reduction in non-suicidal self-injury in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder.” – Gary Rothbard

 

Self-injury is a disturbing phenomenon occurring worldwide, especially in developed countries, such as the U.S. and those in western Europe. Approximately two million cases are reported annually in the U.S. Each year, 1 in 5 females and 1 in 7 males engage in self-injury usually starting in the teen years. Frequently, untreated depression and other mental health challenges create an environment of despair that leads people to cope with these challenges in unhealthy ways. Nearly 50 percent of those who engage in self-injury have been sexually abused.

 

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a very serious mental illness that is estimated to affect 1.6% of the U.S. population. It involves unstable moods, behavior, and relationships, problems with regulating emotions and thoughts, impulsive and reckless behavior, and unstable relationships. About ¾ of BPD patients engage in self-injurious behaviors.

 

One of the few treatments that appears to be effective for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). It is targeted at changing the problem behaviors characteristic of BPD including self-injury. Behavior change is accomplished through focusing on changing the thoughts and emotions that precede problem behaviors, as well as by solving the problems faced by individuals that contribute to problematic thoughts, feelings and behaviors. In DBT five core skills are practiced; mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, the middle path, and interpersonal effectiveness. DBT reduces self-injurious behaviors in BPD patients.

 

In today’s Research News article “Cessation of Deliberate Self-Harm Behavior in Patients With Borderline Personality Traits Treated With Outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952764/ ) Westad and colleagues recruited adults with subthreshold Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and provided them with 1 hour individual therapy and 2.5 hours of group skills training per week for 8 weeks of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Prior to treatment they were assessed for personality and clinical symptoms. Before and after treatment they were measured for self-harm and suicidal behaviors, depression, hopelessness, personality disorders, quality of life, general health, and psychological, social, and occupational functioning.

 

They found that over the first year following therapy 94% of the patients ceased self-harm behaviors in an average of 16 weeks. Compared to baseline, following treatment the patients had significant increases in quality of life and functioning and significant decreases in depression, hopelessness, and personality disorders. A comparison of patients who reduced self-harm behaviors quickly to those who took longer for the reduction did not reveal any significant differences.

 

In the present study there wasn’t a control condition. So, alternative confounding interpretations are present. But the findings replicate previous controlled work that Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) produces significant improvement in Borderline Personality Disorder and reductions in self-harm behaviors. So, the results of the present study are likely to due to DBT alone. The findings expand knowledge in that they demonstrate the effectiveness of DBT for patients who are subthreshold for BPD.

 

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is one of very few treatments that are effective for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). But DBT is a complex therapy that includes mindfulness and other significant components. So, it is unclear which components or combination of components are necessary and sufficient for the clinical benefits.

 

So, reduce self-harm in patients with borderline personality disorder with mindfulness.

 

DBT might provide an effective treatment for severe self-harm in institutional settings.” – Gail Skillington

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are a also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Yngvill Ane Stokke Westad, Kristen Hagen, Egil Jonsbu, Stian Solem. Cessation of Deliberate Self-Harm Behavior in Patients With Borderline Personality Traits Treated With Outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Front Psychol. 2021; 12: 578230. Published online 2021 Feb 26. doi: 0.3389/fpsyg.2021.578230

 

Abstract

The first aim of the study was to identify when deliberate self-harm (DSH) behavior ceased in patients with borderline symptoms undergoing dialectical behavioral treatment (DBT). The second aim was to compare patients who ceased their self-harm behavior early or late in the course of treatment, with regard to demographics, comorbidity, and symptom severity. The study used a naturalistic design and included 75 treatment completers at an outpatient DBT clinic. Of these 75 patients, 46 presented with self-harming behavior at pre-treatment. These 46 participants where split into two groups, based on median amount of time before ceasing self-harm behavior, termed early (up to 8 weeks) and late (8+ weeks) responders. Treatment duration varied from 16 to 160 weeks. Patients were assessed pre- and post-treatment using measures of depression, hopelessness, personality traits, quality of life, and global assessment of symptoms and functioning. The majority (93.5%) ceased their self-harming within the first year, and the average number of weeks was 15.5 (SD = 17.8). Twenty-five percent of patients ceased their DSH behavior during the first week of treatment. For the remaining patients, the cessation of DSH continued gradually across a 1 year period. We found no differences between early and late responders with respect to demographics, comorbidity, symptom severity, or treatment outcome. None of the patients committed suicide. The findings indicate that self-harming behavior decreases gradually across the first year after starting DBT.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952764/

 

Improve Refractory Depression with Mindfulness

Improve Refractory Depression with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

Mindfulness and other meditations, particularly combined with cognitive therapy, work just as well for anxiety or depression as the medications do, but they don’t have those side effects,” – Daniel Goleman

 

Clinically diagnosed depression is the most common mental illness, affecting over 6% of the population. Major depression can be quite debilitating. Depression can be difficult to treat and is usually treated with anti-depressive medication. But, of patients treated initially with drugs only about a third attained remission of the depression. After repeated and varied treatments including drugs, therapy, exercise etc. only about two thirds of patients attained remission. But drugs often have troubling side effects and can lose effectiveness over time. In addition, many patients do not respond to treatment. This is called refractory depression.

 

Mindfulness training has been shown to be an effective treatment for depression and its recurrence and even in the cases where drugs failDialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)  is a mindfulness-based therapeutic technique that produces behavior change by focusing on changing the thoughts and emotions that precede problem behaviors, as well as by solving the problems faced by individuals that contribute to problematic thoughts, feelings and behaviors. In DBT five core skills are practiced; mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, the middle path, and interpersonal effectiveness. DBT has been shown to be effective in treating depression. So, it makes sense, then, to study the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for refractory depression.

 

In today’s Research News article “Refractory depression – mechanisms and efficacy of radically open dialectical behaviour therapy (RefraMED): findings of a randomised trial on benefits and harms.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282863/ ) Lynch and colleagues recruited adults with refractory major depressive disorder and randomly assigned them to either treatment as usual or to receive 29 weekly 1 hour sessions of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). They were measured before and after treatment and 5 months and 11 months later for depressive symptoms, psychosocial functioning, suicidal ideation, psychological inflexibility, emotional coping, and social support.

 

They found that compared to baseline both groups continuously improved with reduced depressive symptoms, but the group that received Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) demonstrated significantly greater reductions but they were only statistically significant immediately after treatment but not at the 5 and 11 month follow ups. Also remission rates were higher in the DBT group. In addition, the DBT group had significantly greater psychological flexibility, emotional coping after treatment and all follow-up measurements.

 

These are interesting results that suggest that Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for refractory major depressive disorder. In other words, it helps the patients who are not helped by any other treatments; the most difficult to treat patients. The fact that the relief of depressive symptoms is not significantly different from the treatment as usual group at the 5 and 11-month follow ups suggests that booster session may be necessary. But it should be recognized that the patients were markedly improved relative to their baselines. It was just that the treatment as usual group improved as well. So, the DBT produced a large and sustained reduction in depression in these refractory patients.

 

So, improve refractory depression with mindfulness.

 

Meditation helped me realize that the misery I feel is temporary. It sucks, but if I can wade my way through it, I know I’ll probably have a better day tomorrow.” – Stacey Neglia

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Lynch, T. R., Hempel, R. J., Whalley, B., Byford, S., Chamba, R., Clarke, P., Clarke, S., Kingdon, D. G., O’Mahen, H., Remington, B., Rushbrook, S. C., Shearer, J., Stanton, M., Swales, M., Watkins, A., & Russell, I. T. (2020). Refractory depression – mechanisms and efficacy of radically open dialectical behaviour therapy (RefraMED): findings of a randomised trial on benefits and harms. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science, 216(4), 204–212. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2019.53

 

Abstract

Background

Individuals with depression often do not respond to medication or psychotherapy. Radically open dialectical behaviour therapy (RO DBT) is a new treatment targeting overcontrolled personality, common in refractory depression.

Aims

To compare RO DBT plus treatment as usual (TAU) for refractory depression with TAU alone (trial registration: ISRCTN 85784627).

Method

RO DBT comprised 29 therapy sessions and 27 skills classes over 6 months. Our completed randomised trial evaluated RO DBT for refractory depression over 18 months in three British secondary care centres. Of 250 adult participants, we randomised 162 (65%) to RO DBT. The primary outcome was the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), assessed masked and analysed by treatment allocated.

Results

After 7 months, immediately following therapy, RO DBT had significantly reduced depressive symptoms by 5.40 points on the HRSD relative to TAU (95% CI 0.94–9.85). After 12 months (primary end-point), the difference of 2.15 points on the HRSD in favour of RO DBT was not significant (95% CI –2.28 to 6.59); nor was that of 1.69 points on the HRSD at 18 months (95% CI –2.84 to 6.22). Throughout RO DBT participants reported significantly better psychological flexibility and emotional coping than controls. However, they reported eight possible serious adverse reactions compared with none in the control group.

Conclusions

The RO DBT group reported significantly lower HRSD scores than the control group after 7 months, but not thereafter. The imbalance in serious adverse reactions was probably because of the controls’ limited opportunities to report these.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282863/

 

Improve the Health and Well-Being of Patients with Functional Dyspepsia with Mindfulness

Improve the Health and Well-Being of Patients with Functional Dyspepsia with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduces symptoms of functional dyspepsia and increases quality of life of the patients.” – Sobhan Pur Nik Dast

 

Functional Dyspepsia involves abdominal pain. Bloating, and nausea without a clear physical cause. It is often accompanied with anxiety. It is one of the most common digestive problems and affects 10% to 20% of the population. There is no cure. The symptoms are most frequently treated with over-the-counter medications such as antacids or anti-gas medications or even antidepressants. Stress is known to exacerbate dyspepsia. So, lifestyle changes are often recommended to reduce stress.

 

Mindfulness trainings have been shown to improve the physiological and psychological responses to stress and to reduce anxiety. They have also been shown to improve other digestive disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). So, it is reasonable to investigate whether mindfulness training might be effective for functional dyspepsia.  Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a mindfulness-based therapy that focuses on changing the thoughts and emotions that precede problem behaviors, as well as by solving the problems faced by individuals that contribute to problematic thoughts, feelings and behaviors. In DBT five core skills are practiced; mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, the middle path, and interpersonal effectiveness. It is not known if functional dyspepsia can be effectively treated with DBT.

 

In today’s Research News article “Comparison of dialectical behavior therapy and anti-anxiety medication on anxiety and digestive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554546/ ) Tavakoli and colleagues recruited adults diagnosed with functional dyspepsia and continued them on antacid medication (pantoprazole ) and randomly assigned them to one of three groups, receiving either 8 weekly 2.5 hour sessions of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), an antianxiety medication (sertraline), or no further treatment. They were measured before and after treatment for dyspepsia symptom severity and anxiety.

 

They found that after treatment the group that received Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) had the greatest significant reduction is dyspepsia symptom severity with the anti-anxiety medication group second and no significant improvement in the no-treatment group. They also found that after treatment the group that received anti-anxiety medication had the greatest significant reduction is dyspepsia symptom severity with the DBT group second and no significant improvement in the no-treatment group.

 

These are interesting results that suggest that Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is effective for the treatment of the symptoms of functional dyspepsia including anxiety. But anti-anxiety medication is better at reducing anxiety levels. Since the mindfulness training of DBT does not require drugs with significant side effects, it would appear to be the preferred treatment for functional dyspepsia.

 

The mechanism by which DBT improves functional dyspepsia were not studied. Functional dyspepsia, however, is thought to be produced or exacerbated by stress. Mindfulness training is known to reduce the physiological and psychological responses to stress. So, it is likely that DBT reduces stress effects thereby improving functional dyspepsia.

 

So, improve the health and well-being of patients with functional dyspepsia with mindfulness.

 

Meditation works at all levels to aid the digestive process, making it one of the most effective natural remedies for indigestion.” – Beeja

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Tavakoli, T., Hoseini, M., Tabatabaee, T., Rostami, Z., Mollaei, H., Bahrami, A., Ayati, S., & Bijari, B. (2020). Comparison of dialectical behavior therapy and anti-anxiety medication on anxiety and digestive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences : The Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 25, 59. https://doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_673_19

 

Abstract

Background:

Functional dyspepsia is a common chronic digestive disorder. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy and anti-anxiety medication in patients with functional dyspepsia.

Materials and Methods:

The present study was a randomized, controlled clinical trial with sixty patients who were suffering from functional dyspepsia that identified by the ROME III criteria. Patients were divided into three groups by using pre- and posttest design, including Group A (dialectal treatment and pantoprazole), Group B (anxiolytic drug treatment and pantoprazole), and Group C (no intervention, only pantoprazole were used). The Beck Anxiety Inventory and the patient assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity Index Questionnaire were completed by the patients after receiving the written consent. Finally, the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20.

Results:

There was a significant improvement in the severity of dyspepsia after intervention in all three groups. The greatest decrease in the severity of functional dyspepsia was observed in the dialectical behavioral therapy group as compared to the other groups (Group A: −15.4 ± 6.61, Group B: −3.85 ± 2.77, and Group C: −7.8 ± 4.02; P = 0.001). Furthermore, the Beck Anxiety Inventory scores were statistically significantly improved in all three groups (Group A: −5.75 ± 2.53, Group B: −7.3 ± 3.19, and Group C: −2.60 ± 1.5; P = 0.001). There was a positive correlation between the change in dyspepsia score and change in anxiety score across different intervention groups (r = 0.55; P < 0.001).

Conclusion:

Dialectical behavioral therapy can be effective in reducing anxiety and improving the dyspepsia symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia compared to anti-anxiety medication or conventional therapy. Therefore, communication between the physicians and psychologists and psychiatrists can have positive effects on the treatment of these patients.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554546/

 

Improve Adherence to Treatment and Self-Care of Coronary Heart Disease Patients with Mindfulness

Improve Adherence to Treatment and Self-Care of Coronary Heart Disease Patients with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

“Not only can meditation improve how your heart functions, but a regular practice can enhance your outlook on life and motivate you to maintain many heart-healthy behaviors, like following a proper diet, getting adequate sleep, and keeping up regular exercise,” – Dr. John Denninger

 

Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer. A myriad of treatments has been developed including a variety of surgical procedures and medications. In addition, lifestyle changes have proved to be effective including quitting smoking, weight reduction, improved diet, physical activity, and reducing stresses. Unfortunately, for a variety of reasons, 60% of cardiovascular disease patients decline engaging in these lifestyle changes, making these patients at high risk for another attack.

 

Contemplative practices have been shown to be safe and effective alternative treatments for cardiovascular disease. Practices such as meditation, tai chi, and yoga, have been shown to be helpful for heart health and to reduce the physiological and psychological responses to stress. They have also been shown to be effective in maintaining cardiovascular health and the treatment of cardiovascular diseaseDialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)  is a mindfulness-based therapeutic technique that produces behavior change by focusing on changing the thoughts and emotions that precede problem behaviors, as well as by solving the problems faced by individuals that contribute to problematic thoughts, feelings and behaviors. In DBT five core skills are practiced; mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, the middle path, and interpersonal effectiveness.

 

It makes sense, then, to study the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for the treatment of patients with Coronary Heart Disease. In today’s Research News article “The effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy on adherence to treatment and self-caring behavior in patients with coronary heart disease.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073803/) Tavakoli and colleagues recruited patients with coronary heart disease. They continued to receive treatment as usual and were randomly assigned to receive either no additional treatment or an 8 weekly 2-hour session of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). They were measured before and after training for medication adherence and self-care for coronary heart disease.

 

They found that in comparison to baseline and the control group that the patients who received Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) had significantly improved medication adherence and self-care for coronary heart disease. These effects of DBT would predict favorable outcomes. After DBT the patients take their medication more reliably and they better maintain and manage their own care and have greater confidence in their ability to care for themselves. These improvements to the patients’ behavior should lead to better recovery from coronary heart disease and better overall health.

 

So, improve adherence to treatment and self-care of coronary heart disease patients with mindfulness.

 

this practice may be clinically useful in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease [the prevention of further heart or stroke events for people who already have the condition].” – Heart Matters

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Tavakoli, F., Kazemi-Zahrani, H., & Sadeghi, M. (2019). The effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy on adherence to treatment and self-caring behavior in patients with coronary heart disease. ARYA atherosclerosis, 15(6), 281–287. https://doi.org/10.22122/arya.v15i6.1733

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) on adherence to treatment and self-caring behavior in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).

METHODS

This was an experimental study based on control and experimental groups with pre-test and post-test. 32 male and female patients with CHD having at least high school diploma, referring to Isfahan cardiovascular research institute, Isfahan, Iran, were selected and placed randomly in two groups of control and experimental. Pre-test stage was done for both two groups by 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and Self-Care of Coronary Heart Disease Inventory (SC-CHDI). The experimental group was placed under the intervention of DBT for 8 sessions of 2 hours (once a week). Afterwards, the post-test was done for both groups.

RESULTS

It was shown by analyzing results from t-test that adherence to treatment and self-care behavior significantly increased in experimental group comparing to control group [(1.81 ± 0.75 vs. 5.19 ± 1.22, P < 0.001) and (72.50 ± 4.38 vs. 55.50 ± 7.42, P < 0.001), respectively]. Also results showed that self-caring and adherence to treatment significantly increased after being adjusted for baseline measurement (P < 0.001). The findings showed that DBT had effect on adherence to treatment and self-caring behavior of patients with CHD.

CONCLUSION

On the basis of results, it could be said that DBT intervention can have positive impact on adherence to treatment and self-caring behavior of patients with CHD.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073803/

Lower Suicide Risk in College Students with Mindfulness

Lower Suicide Risk in College Students with Mindfulness

 

By John M. de Castro, Ph.D.

 

Zhongyong thinking still plays an important role in regulating mental distress and maintaining subjective well-being among contemporary Chinese young adults.” – Xeuling Yang

 

Around 43,000 people take their own lives each year in the US. Someone dies from suicide every 12.3 minutes. Worldwide over 800,000 people die by suicide every year. The problem is far worse than these statistics suggest as it has been estimated that for every completed suicide there were 12 unsuccessful attempts. In other words, about a half a million people in the U.S. attempt suicide each year. Yet compared with other life-threatening conditions there has been scant research on how to identify potential suicide attempters, intervene, and reduce suicidality.

 

Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce suicidalityDialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a mindfulness-based therapy targeted at changing the problem behaviors including self-injury and suicide. Behavior change is accomplished through focusing on changing the thoughts and emotions that precede problem behaviors, as well as by solving the problems faced by individuals that contribute to problematic thoughts, feelings and behaviors. In DBT five core skills are practiced; mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, the middle path, and interpersonal effectiveness.

 

Zhong‐Yong thinking emphasizes pursuing the middle ground and never going to extremes and is characterized by acting appropriately and flexibly under different situations. It would seem to be compatible with the kinds of training occurring in Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and would tend to be an antidote for suicidal thinking. Although it would seem reasonable combining Zhong‐Yong thinking with DBT would improve its effectiveness in lowering the risk of suicide, there have been no systematic studies.

 

In today’s Research News article “Effectiveness of Zhong-Yong thinking based dialectical behavior therapy group skills training versus supportive group therapy for lowering suicidal risks in Chinese young adults: A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up.” (See summary below or view the full text of the study at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303376/) Yang and colleagues recruited high suicide risk college students and randomly assigned them to either a wait-list control condition or to receive a 2-hour once a week for 12 weeks program of either Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) modified for inclusion of Zhong‐Yong thinking or a supportive group therapy program based upon interpersonal psychology focusing on emotional regulation and interpersonal effectiveness. They were measured before and after training and 6 months later for suicide behaviors and ideation, hopelessness, psychological distress, and psychopathological symptoms.

 

They found that in comparison to baseline and the wait-list control group, the groups that received either treatment has significant reductions in suicide behaviors and ideation, hopelessness, psychological distress, and psychopathological symptoms. But at the 6-month follow up the treatment groups differed with the Zhong-Yong thinking based Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) group producing significantly greater improvements of obsessive compulsive, anxiety, hostility, phobic, and psychotic symptoms in comparison to supportive group therapy.

 

The results are promising that Zhong-Yong thinking based Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) can reduce suicidality and risk factors for suicide in college students and maintain the benefits for 6 months after the end of active treatment. Although supportive therapy was equally beneficial on the short-term, it was less effective on the long-term. So, Zhong-Yong thinking based DBT would appear to be the superior treatment. It would be important in future research to compare Zhong-Yong thinking based DBT to traditional DBT to determine if the addition of training in Zhong-Yong thinking increases the benefits.

 

So, lower suicide risk in college students with mindfulness.

 

those who scored high on the Zhongyong Thinking Scale had substantially lower scores on anxiety and depressive symptoms, and had higher scores on self-esteem and life satisfaction.” – Xeuling Yang

 

CMCS – Center for Mindfulness and Contemplative Studies

 

This and other Contemplative Studies posts are also available on Google+ https://plus.google.com/106784388191201299496/posts and on Twitter @MindfulResearch

 

Study Summary

 

Yang, X., Liu, D., Wang, Y., Chen, Y., Chen, W., Yang, C., Zhang, P., Ding, S., & Zhang, X. (2020). Effectiveness of Zhong-Yong thinking based dialectical behavior therapy group skills training versus supportive group therapy for lowering suicidal risks in Chinese young adults: A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up. Brain and behavior, 10(6), e01621. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1621

 

Abstract

Background

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a first‐line treatment for the prevention of suicide. Zhong‐Yong thinking could be viewed as a Chinese way of dialectical thinking, has long been a culturally dictating thinking style in China. To enhance cultural adaptability, we integrated Zhong‐Yong thinking into DBT group skills training and examined its efficacy in suicidal prevention compared with a supportive group therapy and a wait‐list group in high‐risk suicidal Chinese college students.

Methods

A total of 97 suicidal participants were randomized to either Zhong‐Yong thinking based DBT group skills training (DBTZYT, n = 33), or supportive group therapy (SGT; n = 32), or wait‐list group (WL; n = 32). DBTZYT was a 12‐week program based on Zhong‐Yong thinking instead of dialectical thinking, coaching participants mindfulness, emotion regulation, distress tolerance, and interpersonal effectiveness. Supportive group therapy was a 12‐week program aiming at improving interpersonal effectiveness and emotion regulation skills. Outcome measures were assessed at pre‐ and post‐treatment and 6‐month follow‐up.

Results

At post‐treatment measures, the levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, psychache symptoms, and general psychopathology had significantly decreased in both intervention groups; at the 6‐month follow‐up measures, the intervention effects were better maintained in the DBTZYT group rather than in the SGT group. Specifically, DBTZYT was more effective in relieving participants’ long‐term obsessive‐compulsive, anxiety, hostility, phobic, psychotic, and additional symptoms.

Conclusions

Zhong‐Yong thinking not only could integrate with DBT skills training in Chinese young adult population, but also has special strength in enhancing DBT’s efficacy.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303376/